Effect Of Religion On Political Participation By Latino Citizens In Us Politics


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Definition of political participation

Political participation has taken on a series of definitions depending on the author or the context. However, for purposes of this paper, political participation will refer to lobbying, convincing others to vote, protesting, voting and related activities. Usually, one of the most prominently used measures of political participation is the amount of people who turn out to vote; in other words, voter turnout. (Tippet, 2007)

There have been a number of reasons available to justify why voter turnout is low among certain groups and much higher in others. For instance, when a country opts to use personalized contact to inform people about the need to vote, then chances are that that country will register high voter turnout. The latter method usually entails visiting potential voters from door to door. Less effective methods include pre-recorded phone messages usually known as robo-calls. (Lilla, 2007)

In certain instances, political participation may be impeded by a citizen’s lack of  awareness on the details surrounding voting. For example, some may not know how to use voting machines or the location of voting centers. Consequently, this impedes their participation. Additionally, people may record low political participation because of certain cultural factors. For instance, it is likely that immigrant communities and ethnic communities may lack the basic language skills required to understand messages from political interest groups. Such persons may require translators and this makes them less effective in achieving their goal.

However, perhaps another more valid cultural factor is a group’s beliefs and values. When these beliefs do not fall in line with politically related ones, then it is likely that these groups may record lower voter turnout. In this case, the most outstanding factor is religion because it forms the basis for most belief systems. (Austin, 2008)

Lastly, low political participation may be caused by missing elements in the political system of a certain country. It is possible to find that certain countries may encourage only certain members of their community to take part in politics while others may be prevented from pursuing this because no one has bothered with them. These groups normally lack models from which they can borrow from thus making them isolated. However, for purposes of this paper, greater emphasis will be placed on the influence of religion on political participation.

1.2 Research question

The research question is: Does religion effect political participation by Latino citizens in the US?

2.0 Frame

This question can be further divided into three major segments as follows

  1. What role does religion play in politics in the US?
  2. How does the importance of religion in politics relate to Latino immigrants?
  3. Do Latinos have poor political participation?
  4. How do religion, Latino immigrants and political participation intertwine in US politics?

2.1 Project outline

There are a series of issues that need to be analyzed critically in order to answer the research question. For example, studies have shown that religion has an important role to play in society. However, there is a …

Hands Down the Best Handouts: Top 5 Political Handouts


Political candidates need three main categories of printed items to run for office-a name identification piece, an informational piece and a handout piece.  The name ID piece is typically their yard sign, which has become the number one way to let voters know they are running.  The informational piece is taken care of with a brochure, post card or palm card, maybe a combination of these.  This piece offers bio information and a candidate’s issues.  The piece with the most options, and can cause the greatest stress on a candidate, is the handout piece.

A handout piece is a “goodie” that is given to potential voters during neighborhood door knocking, parades or county fairs.  Choosing a handout piece can be tricky in a number of ways.  A candidate doesn’t want to spend too much money on a knick-knack.  But, the handout has to be both functional and visible.  Voters will either use the handout or throw it away.  If it is thrown away, it loses its visibility factor.

To help, here is a rundown of the 5 best political handouts.  The most common losers are also included.  The criteria for these items is: 1) functionality-will the recipient actually use the item; 2) visibility-will the item’s functionality lead it to be passed on and seen by more than just the recipient; and 3) price point-will the combination of functionality and visibility justify the cost of the item.

Best Handouts:

#1-Notepads:  For around $.30 each a candidate can get 1000, 25 sheet notepads with a logo on each page.  People don’t throw out notepads.  After a note is written on the pad, it is kept for a period of time and often handed to someone else.  The notepad is the perfect combination of functionality, visibility and price.

#2-Sticky Notes: This item has the same functionality and visibility as the notepad.  The cost is slightly more.  However, some might agree that the uniqueness of the sticky note makes it a better handout.

#3-Stadium Cups: Stadium cups are a very versatile handout.  They are great for college and high school sporting events, fairs, parades and candidate sponsored gatherings.  The cost is comparable to the sticky notes, but it loses out slightly on visibility since they are used largely at single events.

#4-Pens: Think about this.  Pens are an item that is commonly lost by its owner.  However, when it is lost, someone else finds it.  Pens are about the same price as notepads, but lose a little visibility until they are lost for someone else to find or shared with someone else.  Consider coupling this with a notepad and you have a winning package.

#5-T-shirts: T-shirts are on this list because they have tremendous visibility and functionality.  Next to yard signs, t-shirts have become one of the greatest name ID pieces in politics.  Virtually everyone who is handed a t-shirt will wear it.  But, the cost of handing out t-shirts can get high.  That …

Before You Store Your Lawn Mower For Winter

You probably use your lawn mower quite a bit in the late spring, summer months, and sometimes the early fall. While you should be keeping up with the maintenance of your mower all through those months of use, once it's time for you to store away your lawn mower for winter, there are some things you'll definitely need to do. Keep these tips in mind to make sure that your lawn mower is ready to go when the next season for mowing coming around.

First of all, you need to change the engine oil and change the oil filter as well as the air filter. This way you start out next season with new oil and new filters in place. You should make sure that the gas is out of the fuel tank as well. You can run it out or empty the fuel tank. If you are going to leave any fuel in the tank, then you need to put some additive in that will keep it from gumming up during the winter months.

There are several areas that you'll want to lubricate before you store the lawn mower for winter. You should add some engine oil to the cylinders and then put the spark plugs back in. Treat all the metal surfaces on the mower deck with a material that prevents rust. Make sure that the grass is all cleaned out of the mower deck and the rest of the mower too.

If you have an electric mower, remove the power cord and get rid of the negative cable that is on the battery during the winter. If you make sure to do all these steps before you store the mower for the winter time, when you get out the mower in the spring, it will help make sure that everything is still in great shape. …

Obama and the 4 Key Trends in US Political-economy

For the first time in history, the Americans have elected a President who has never had a job. President-elect Obama has never worked in the private sector; never ran an organisation; never met a payroll; and never hired a single private sector employee. He was a city-state paid lawyer ‘organising’ his Chicago community to achieve his personal political ambitions. He is the ultimate insider and corrupt politician without a clue about policy, the economy, trade or foreign affairs. What he portends for the future direction of the US is not a positive.

The US is now on a very dangerous left-ward lurch – irregardless of the media’s rhetoric about how ‘centrist’ the new Black messiah will be. Obama and his friends, including most of the old Clinton administration which is now being hired into Obama’s government, are not centrist. It was the Republican Congress which dominated the politics of the 1990’s which kept budgets balanced, gave the US tax cuts, welfare reform and NAFTA and which made Clinton assume the role of an economic conservative. No such constraint exists today on an Obama administration. The Republicans have lost credibility, seats and are in disarray [how else can one explain Sarah Palin]. There is nothing to stop Obama from enacting his true beliefs and ones which he has openly espoused for 12 years in politics – large scale government ownership of production, social processes and the elimination of risk. It is the European model he has supported albeit in stages.

The US political-economy will only get worse after Obama’s coronation and this will be demonstrated over succeeding administrations. This means that whatever Obama will implement might only have future repercussions as opposed to an immediate impact. If Obama implements his big statist ideas not only will the US economy suffer further decline, the spending and program building developed in the next 4 years will be almost politically impossible to unravel. Government programs only grow, they never shrink.

We have seen this story repeated countless times in the past 100 years.

FDR’s failed domestic administration which prolonged the Great Depression and gutted US business, bequeathed to American taxpayers the socialist housing finance firms of Freddie and Fannie which were key players in the current housing finance meltdown; a bankrupt state managed social security system; and an inefficient socialised US health care system which has nothing whatsoever to do with free markets but which is badly in need of costly repair [US governments spend 60% of all health care dollars and firmly control the rest through legislation].

LBJ’s great socialist society program of the 1960s erected a huge welfare system which is now bankrupt with attendant and unforeseen social costs such as the destruction of Black families and massive illegal immigration. Welfare and ‘mandatory’ payments for social programs now constitute 80% of US federal government spending [which is now over $3 Trillion per year].

Bush and the current Congress and their desire to print and spend $3.5 Trillion, will likewise have enormous distortive …

Earn Online Credits For Political Science and Sociology Classes

If you’d like to learn a little bit about politics, and a little bit of about psychology with just a sprinkle of sociology then I recommend you go online and get yourself a free education participating with others on Internet in forums on political issues. What you will learn will be worth its weight in gold and is far better than earning online credits because you will get a taste of what the real world is all about, and what people are really thinking.

You see, people online often say what they are thinking whereas, if you meet them in public they may not say those kinds of things. There are many reasons for this, for instance, many people use screen names, or fake names online when they blog, go onto social networks, or post their thoughts in Internet forums.

If you really wish to get a handle upon what people are thinking about during the political season then you don’t have to go very far online to find a good intellectual debate on political topics. You will also find very quickly that far too many people have too much animosity, distrust of the government, and anger towards the other political parties that are not their own.

You will also learn the social dynamics of primate politics and how various people get together in groups and maneuver around to attack other people verbally, or gather support in order to project their argument onto opposing groups that thinks about an issue in a different way. There is probably no better place than going online to learn about political science and sociology. I hope you will please consider all this.…

Plastic Surgery in the Philippines

Dilemma in Cosmetic Plastic Surgery

This is one thing for sure that I, as a Plastic Surgeon could share to anybody very much interested in enhancing their physical appearance.

Today, that the public have an increased interest in cosmetic surgery or physical enhancement either medical or surgical and with the market population increasing day by day. A lot of physicians, even non plastic surgeons and worse of all non doctors would like to get involve in cosmetic business. They would introduce them self as a cosmetic consultant or cosmetic surgeon even without undergoing formal training in Plastic Surgery.

Therefore it would be best for any prospective clients to carefully scrutinize the credentials or qualification of the person you seek consult with, in order to be assured of the quality of your surgeon. However, there are others that would organize and form their own group of surgeons to form a cosmetic organization to boost their qualifications and credentials.

The sole society or organization in the Philippines that is recognized locally by the Philippine College of Surgeons and internationally by the American College of Surgeon, American Society of Plastic Surgeon and ASEAN Congress of Plastic Surgeon to monitor and regulate the practice of cosmetic surgery and training of future plastic surgeons is the Philippine Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons – PAPRAS. This prestigious assembly of Plastic Surgeons demand from its members certain qualifications and standards in term of academic and training, to assure the public of a safe and quality surgeons. So it is prudent if you would inquire from your surgeon, his affiliation to the society (PAPRAS).  It goes with out saying that PAPRAS membership or affiliation would be the seal of excellence in the practice of cosmetic surgery in the Philippines.

To clarify things out and to make the public aware, Cosmetic Surgery should be performed by a Plastic surgeon with adequate and formal training in cosmetic/aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Plastic surgeons are both cosmetic and reconstructive surgeon, and Reconstructive surgery is a prerequisite for all plastic surgeon before they finish their training and be certified member of the society (PAPRAS). It would take 6 to 8 years of formal training and 2 qualifying national specialty exams (Given by the Philippine Boards of Plastic) after medical school before a doctor could claim himself a Plastic Surgeon. Training is very essential, because it is through these years of training that plastic surgeon is able to gain knowledge to do cosmetic procedure, differentiate high-quality result from dreadful outcome, and learn to identify, prevent and treat complications.

However there are alot of doctors and even non physician that don’t want to take the longer road to be a plastic surgeon, since they think that they could deceive the unsuspecting client. Usually they call themselves cosmetic surgeon but such term does not exist, they usually undergo a 6 to12 months of observership locally or from other country without hands-on training, then afterwards they offer and perform cosmetic surgical procedures …

Politics and Citizens' Responsibilities

The political responsibility and the role of citizens are cardinal points in the social structure of our society. The other factors that govern the awakening in masses are moral, spiritual, cultural and humanitarian values. These values ​​are directly proportional to our domestic and educational institutional environments. These fundamental institutions play a role model in character building of an individual. The character which builds around this role model lays a strong foundation of a dynamic society. The society, in turns, will become a beacon of guidance to its people. These institutions get to boost when individuals and groups collectively contribute to the humanitarian values. The spiritual and cultural values ​​further enhance the stature of an individual.

Now, it is important to understand the Politics and its values. The Politics as described by Aristotle is, "Every state is a community of some kind, and every community is established with a view to some good; for mankind always act in order to obtain that which they think good. But, if all communities aim At some good, the state or political community, which is the highest of all, and which reflects all the rest, aims at good in a greater degree than any other, and at the highest good ".

Every member of society has fundamental responsibility to act in a matured manner to implement the core values ​​of Politics. The citizens of any country individually and collectively have to take active part in understanding politics and its values. The politics does not mean involving mudslinging and degenerating into human values. On the contrary, it is the justice and well being of a common man. They play a constructive role in shaping the policies of the state. Here, they become the watch dog of the organization. It is a fact that violent opposition of any organization is essential in achieving profitable results.

The above situations are idealistic and appear in an abstract form rather, in reality. However, this is the crucial joke, wherein the role of masses comes into play. The leaders who are the driving force of a nation are the building block of a healthy society. People follow their leaders as heroes, based on their perception on hero worship. It is, therefore, essential and necessary to comprehend the core concept of values ​​and implement accordingly.

Every home has its responsibility to teach their tiny tos the principles of truth, honesty and sincerity. These facts will definitely invigorate their young mind and produce dynamic leaders. It ever builds a strong and powerful nation with sound democratic values. Here, it evolves a political base and mass orientation. …

How Do Police Go About Getting a Search?

Whenever a crime occurs and evidence of that crime is believed to be within suspects private residence, law enforcement officials must obtain a search warrant before entering the property. Otherwise, the homeowner is protected against any unreasonable search and seizure by the Fourth Amendment of the US Constitution.

The search warrant must be specific about the time, place, and items that investigators are searching and must be obtained on the basis of probable cause, which is a hard reason approved by a judge. Only law enforcement officials have the ability to obtain a search warrant. Lawyers, private investigators, and private individuals can not.

The steps required to get a valid search warrant are as follows:

1. Preparing the affidavit : This affidavit describes the place to be searched, the items to be searched, and the reasons why the officer expects the items will be found at the location (probable cause).

2. Preparing the warrant : This step results in the official document being signed by a judge permitting law enforcement to enter the awards for the search to take place.

3. Getting the warrant signed : Law enforcement officials present the warrant and affidavit to the judge. If the judge believes there is probable cause for a search to take place, he signs the warrant to make it official.

Sometimes, getting a search warrant to find evidence of a crime can be difficult, and it is not always cut and dry like you see on the CSI TV shows. Probable cause can be one of the first issues to prevent a warrant from being official. The law enforcement official must have a strong reason for believing that the items he is searching are at the specified location. A hunch or a suspicion on his part simply is not enough.

Another problem that arises when making a warrant official is that the warrant must describe exactly what police are looking for. For this reason, police tend to add any and all items they believe may be present. If police happen to discover other evidence while they are conducting a legitimate search for the items listed in the warrant, then that evidence CAN be taken into their custody.

Finally, another difficulty that arises when getting a search warrant is that the area to be searched must be explicitly defined. For example, if a search warrant identifies a house, but does not specifically mention that the storage shack or garage can be searched, then those places not spelled out in the warrant can not be searched. If a warranty describes a garage to be searched but not the car parked inside, then the garage can be searched but not the car. …

Lawn Mower Accessories Are a Big Part of Your Landscaping

For managing a well groomed yard or commercial landscape, the right equipment is vital. Fortunately, there is a specialized piece of machinery designed for just about any task you may come across. For example, if you are grooming a very large grassy area, a ride on lawn mower is necessary. Not only that, it should come with a mulching deck that allows the freshly cut grass to breathe as well as saving you money on fertilizer. John Deere is known for its quality machines, as is Murray. There are also replacement blades, baggers, landscape rakes, and mojack lifts should you need to make any replacements or repairs. Now, it’s not that they break often, but no matter how well you take care of your equipment it will wear out.

Here’s a tip though: Be sure you don’t let gasoline sit in your mower. This is a common mistake people make because they aren’t used to monitoring the gas in their car. However, think about how often you drive your car. The gas gets used, and doesn’t simply sit there. For mowing equipment, it’s very possible that you will go longer than thirty days without using your machine. At that point, it’s crucial to change the gas. If you don’t, you might be looking at replacing the engine, which is not cheap.

More likely than not, though, you’ll have a smaller yard. In that case, stick to the walk behind push mowers. These are the standard gasoline types made by companies like Husqvarna, Reel, Simplicity, and Troy Built. For even smaller yards, think about a cordless electric mower. These quiet machines by companies like Honda and Black & Decker will save you money over time.

For tighter spots, you’re going to need an edger or trimmer. Worx and Mantis both make these the right way. A good garden edger will keep all these hard to reach blades of grass trim. Get a retractable hose to wash the whole thing down and you’ll have the best looking yard on the block.…

General Stonewall Jackson’s 1861 Civil War Battle Plan

In 1861 and the beginning of the Civil War, Thomas J. Jackson, the West Virginia Confederate General who would later become known as “Stonewall” Jackson, believed he had the key to a quick and sure victory for the newly formed Confederacy. His ambitious plan was to invade the United States from the panhandle of northern Virginia and continue north all the way to Canada. His plan made good military sense as it would carry the war to the enemy and effectively divide the eastern from the western states. Not only would this invasion be a good logistical move but would give the Confederate States of America legitimacy with foreign countries and the opening of foreign trade relations.

In Jackson’s mind, Confederate control of the railways and turnpikes in the Trans-Allegheny area would be crucial to its defense of the Shenandoah Valley and it’s ready source of supplies in the Virginia heartland.  Unfortunately for the CSA, Stonewall Jackson’s plan for invading the United States was to be overruled by the Generals in Richmond. Politics in the new Confederate States had yet to be ironed out to say the least.

Going forward with Richmond’s orders, General Jackson, having been raised in Western Virginia (which was to become the state of West Virginia) knew that transportation routes were far and few between in the rugged mountainous terrain. The dense forests and mountains posed logistical problems in moving supplies and large numbers of people through the area. There were very few roads and the rivers were not large enough to navigate. There were few railways in the area but they were the most efficient means of transporting supplies.

West Virginia would see both the United States and the Confederacy in a constant struggle to control these vital railroads and other transportation routes. Use of these routes was important to both sides but was critical logistically to the South’s being able to re-supply their commissary from the Shenandoah Valley

In time both sides learned hard lessons in that the mountains and valleys proved difficult to build fortifications that effectively protected important logistical positions on the few roads and railroads. The Civil War in Western Virginia was to largely become a war of flanking tactics, battles that were more skirmishes than full fledged battles and deadly hit and run warfare. The Union by sheer numbers had a definite advantage in moving supplies. Even with this advantage the Confederates proved to be a significant foe in disrupting supply lines.

General Jackson’s ambitious plan to invade the United States from Western Virginia was not to be. Even with the North’s superior forces, the Shenandoah Valley was never won by their drive eastward. The Confederates forces coming from the east were equally ineffective due to logistical and political infighting. Had the powers in Richmond implemented General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson’s invasion plans as he saw them, would the war have had a different outcome? Probably not, but the history of the Civil War would have surly been re-written.…

Tips on Choosing the Right Lawn Sprinklers For You

Every gardener knows that using lawn sprinklers is the best way of keeping your garden lawn looking healthy and vibrant, but with so many different types to choose from it can be a bit confusing which one would be best for you.

Here I will give you information on the more popular types of lawn sprinklers available today, the first thing to consider is the size of your lawn, this is a major factor when determining which sprinkler is best. If you have a large garden lawn and do not have the time to go round and control the watering in different areas, then you should look at installing an automatic in-ground sprinkler system. This type of system can be expensive and time consuming to install, and is not recommended for your average garden lawn. For your average garden lawn using a stand alone water sprinkler which connects to a water outlet via a hosepipe is perfectly adequate for watering your lawn.

This type can consist of the Oscillating sprinkler which has a long tube with various openings, by moving back and forth it omits a fan shaped cascade of water to cover your lawn. Another type is the impact sprinkler, this rotates around in a circle and omits a single jet of water making that familiar clicking sound you here when they are running. The rotating type sprinkler will have two or more arms attached to it, this helps it to dispatch the water in a complete circle around your garden. Another popular type of lawn sprinkler is the sprinkler hose, this is a hose that lies along the ground and has tiny holes along the length of it, this type covers a long rectangular area when in operation.

While choosing the right lawn sprinklers for your garden lawn is important, it is also important to understand when to water your lawn and notice the signs that it needs watering. Garden lawns require much more water when the weather is hot and sunny, because grass is mostly composed of water it is important to get your watering regular correct when the weather is hot and dry. If you are not sure when to water your lawn then you can look for signs that it needs some water, this will be the grass going brown in places and generally looking really dry and dull.

The best time to water your garden lawn would be early in the morning if possible, this will give the water time to get down to the roots where it is needed before the hot midday sun evaporates it. One thing you should be careful of is not to over water your lawn, this can lead to problems such as disease and infestations if your lawn is constantly wet through the day. If your garden lawn does get the dry brown patches on it, then do not panic this might not mean the grass is dead it probably just needs some extra water to bring it …

Institutional Theory and Definitions About Natural Resources

Why institutions matter to achieving economic and social development is certainly not a question that has arisen only in the context of mineral-rich countries. Social scientists have long pointed to institutions as well as institutional change to explain economic and social transformations. This emphasis has been revived by recent institutional theorists with backgrounds in disciplines as diverse as sociology, comparative history, political science and economics.

Diversity in conceptual thinking on the relationship between institutions and economic and social outcomes is reflected in the fact that there is not just one definition of what institutions actually are. Institutions are the rules of the game in a society or… are the humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction. More recent theoretical developments have defined institutions at an even more abstract level.For example consider them to represent a system of social factors that conjointly generate a regularity of behavior.

Stocktaking of recent theoretical contributions confirms that it is at the higher order levels where the study of institutions still requires more attention. This includes questions such as how institutions are embedded in societies, how power relations are to be interpreted and how the bureaucratic functions of government are to be understood? The related governance debate emphasizes the rules of the political game and a country capacity to implement and enforce public policies and to improve public sector coordination with the private sector.

Theoretical work has linked the importance of institutions for development to a range of different micro-economic functions, such as overcoming collective action problems, eliminating uncertainty in the context of bounded rationality and reducing transaction costs. It has been argued that if it was not for the existence of institutions, the problems underlying these functions would undermine the pursuit of productive economic activities. For example, institutions can take a coordinating function by encouraging productive behavior, including learning and innovations, or they can prevent actions that would otherwise undermine social cohesion and evoke distributional conflicts.

Policy-practitioners in turn have often referred to good institutions as particular types of organizations or policies, for example a particular type of trade regime, independent central banks, semi-autonomous agencies that provide a particular type of public services or standardized tools for public financial management. Policy recommendations for the mining sector in the early 1990s emphasized the creation of five institutions with specific roles, including a ministry of mines, a department of mines, a geological survey, a mineral promotion agency and an environmental office.

While the earlier theoretical literature underlined formal institutions, such as legal systems, property rights and contracts, the more recent conceptual work has stressed the importance of informal institutions and how they relate to formal institutions.Reforms re-assigning property rights have not considered that property rights are social constructs and so in order to be stable and secure they require legitimacy.Thus, the theoretical policy arguments would appear to shift away from pointing to the existence of a particular laws or policies on paper and move towards emphasizing the importance of the joint perception of economic, political and …