Effect Of Religion On Political Participation By Latino Citizens In Us Politics


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Definition of political participation

Political participation has taken on a series of definitions depending on the author or the context. However, for purposes of this paper, political participation will refer to lobbying, convincing others to vote, protesting, voting and related activities. Usually, one of the most prominently used measures of political participation is the amount of people who turn out to vote; in other words, voter turnout. (Tippet, 2007)

There have been a number of reasons available to justify why voter turnout is low among certain groups and much higher in others. For instance, when a country opts to use personalized contact to inform people about the need to vote, then chances are that that country will register high voter turnout. The latter method usually entails visiting potential voters from door to door. Less effective methods include pre-recorded phone messages usually known as robo-calls. (Lilla, 2007)

In certain instances, political participation may be impeded by a citizen’s lack of  awareness on the details surrounding voting. For example, some may not know how to use voting machines or the location of voting centers. Consequently, this impedes their participation. Additionally, people may record low political participation because of certain cultural factors. For instance, it is likely that immigrant communities and ethnic communities may lack the basic language skills required to understand messages from political interest groups. Such persons may require translators and this makes them less effective in achieving their goal.

However, perhaps another more valid cultural factor is a group’s beliefs and values. When these beliefs do not fall in line with politically related ones, then it is likely that these groups may record lower voter turnout. In this case, the most outstanding factor is religion because it forms the basis for most belief systems. (Austin, 2008)

Lastly, low political participation may be caused by missing elements in the political system of a certain country. It is possible to find that certain countries may encourage only certain members of their community to take part in politics while others may be prevented from pursuing this because no one has bothered with them. These groups normally lack models from which they can borrow from thus making them isolated. However, for purposes of this paper, greater emphasis will be placed on the influence of religion on political participation.

1.2 Research question

The research question is: Does religion effect political participation by Latino citizens in the US?

2.0 Frame

This question can be further divided into three major segments as follows

  1. What role does religion play in politics in the US?
  2. How does the importance of religion in politics relate to Latino immigrants?
  3. Do Latinos have poor political participation?
  4. How do religion, Latino immigrants and political participation intertwine in US politics?

2.1 Project outline

There are a series of issues that need to be analyzed critically in order to answer the research question. For example, studies have shown that religion has an important role to play in society. However, there is a …

Hands Down the Best Handouts: Top 5 Political Handouts


Political candidates need three main categories of printed items to run for office-a name identification piece, an informational piece and a handout piece.  The name ID piece is typically their yard sign, which has become the number one way to let voters know they are running.  The informational piece is taken care of with a brochure, post card or palm card, maybe a combination of these.  This piece offers bio information and a candidate’s issues.  The piece with the most options, and can cause the greatest stress on a candidate, is the handout piece.

A handout piece is a “goodie” that is given to potential voters during neighborhood door knocking, parades or county fairs.  Choosing a handout piece can be tricky in a number of ways.  A candidate doesn’t want to spend too much money on a knick-knack.  But, the handout has to be both functional and visible.  Voters will either use the handout or throw it away.  If it is thrown away, it loses its visibility factor.

To help, here is a rundown of the 5 best political handouts.  The most common losers are also included.  The criteria for these items is: 1) functionality-will the recipient actually use the item; 2) visibility-will the item’s functionality lead it to be passed on and seen by more than just the recipient; and 3) price point-will the combination of functionality and visibility justify the cost of the item.

Best Handouts:

#1-Notepads:  For around $.30 each a candidate can get 1000, 25 sheet notepads with a logo on each page.  People don’t throw out notepads.  After a note is written on the pad, it is kept for a period of time and often handed to someone else.  The notepad is the perfect combination of functionality, visibility and price.

#2-Sticky Notes: This item has the same functionality and visibility as the notepad.  The cost is slightly more.  However, some might agree that the uniqueness of the sticky note makes it a better handout.

#3-Stadium Cups: Stadium cups are a very versatile handout.  They are great for college and high school sporting events, fairs, parades and candidate sponsored gatherings.  The cost is comparable to the sticky notes, but it loses out slightly on visibility since they are used largely at single events.

#4-Pens: Think about this.  Pens are an item that is commonly lost by its owner.  However, when it is lost, someone else finds it.  Pens are about the same price as notepads, but lose a little visibility until they are lost for someone else to find or shared with someone else.  Consider coupling this with a notepad and you have a winning package.

#5-T-shirts: T-shirts are on this list because they have tremendous visibility and functionality.  Next to yard signs, t-shirts have become one of the greatest name ID pieces in politics.  Virtually everyone who is handed a t-shirt will wear it.  But, the cost of handing out t-shirts can get high.  That …

Riding Lawn Mowers

There is a lot to know about lawnmowers. If you want to purchase a riding lawnmower you will want to consider many factors like the mowing area, horsepowers, maneuvering, cost, storage, attachments, and Maintenance requirements.

The mowing area determines the type of mower that you need. If you have less than an acre, you can purchase either a walking or riding mower. If you have more than acre you will want to just, go with a riding mower. You will also want to look at how many inches your deck will be able to cut at once.

You will want to look at a deck that cuts a couple feet at once; a 30-40 inch deck should be fine for your riding lawn mower. As for horsepower, you will want the most that you can afford. The more horsepower, the better the cut on the grass. The more horsepower you can get will also perform better in damp or wet grass. It is best to go with the higher horsepower because it will make your yard look more even and a lot better than a lower horsepower.

You should also remember that most lawnmowers need to have the power to go with the slopes that your ground may have. You should also try to see if you can get one with a mulching function, but to have the mulching function you will need a higher power machine. If you have a lot of trees in your yard, it's good to have the mulching function and bag so that all the leaves do not stay on your yard.

You will also want to consider your maneuvering ability. Do you think that you can make tight turns around trees, walls, and flower beds? It is important that you get a size of lawn mower that you can maneuver quickly and with skill. Do not purchase a big lawn mower because it has more power and not be able to handle the piece of machinery. Also, think if you will need any attachments. This will raise the price of the machine and it may not fit into your budget.

That's another thing, you have to budget well for your purchase. Before you go to buy the riding lawn mower try to thing of what you would want and then go online and do some research. By doing your research you will know that you can get a deal and it will also allow you to know what price range you should strive for. The cost of lawn mowers can be very high and even cost a couple thousand dollars.

If you can not afford a big, high-powered machine, go with the best that you can afford. You will also want to look at storage. If you will need to buy a bigger shed, put that into your budget as well. As for the maintenance, you should get a lawn mower that requires very little maintenance other than filling the gas tank up. …

Collective Identity in the United States

Identity is what an individual understands from him or her self. This concept becomes more complicated in the society like the United States. Since this society is shaped upon immigration, some peculiar aspects like multiculturalism, multi ethnicity and multi racial have made this concept more complicated and unique.

People from all continents have come to form a single country. So the crucial question will be “what culture will be the dominant one?” or whose “sense of self” will rule the whole country? The answer to this question is not clear cut. Though everyone keeps his or her nationality, all of them have accepted a new and overall identity, called American identity. This acceptance or assimilation began from early days. I mean it was a MUST to get the common values that were provided, otherwise coexisting with other strangers would be difficult if not impossible.

I think this assimilation happens but somehow unconscious. It is hidden in the layers of nearly all American minds. Whenever a threat comes, it makes them aware of their beliefs.

Now this question comes to mind that how American government has been successful in bringing its nation under the flag of American Creed? The tactics they use are different and at the same time comprehensive.

A child is growing in the American society with the conception of sacred Patriotism while the symbols of this concept is honored in his life as he grows.

The propaganda in the media is another means that pushes the people toward accepting their new and collective identity. On the other hand, collective identity is in contrast with individualism. As the societies become more complicated, the role of individualism will be more outstanding, but in the united states they have been able to put these concepts together. This has happened through the deep and complicated process mentioned above. Therefore, the outcome of exercising these values by government is that an American, while an individual, believes in a collective identity as well.…

Research Papers – Political Science Research Paper Writing Made Easy!

Writing political science research papers is not child’s play. In fact, political science research paper writing is one of the most formidable academic writing assignments of your entire educational career. This article provides simple research paper help for writing a political science research paper without much difficulty.

* First, choose a relevant and interesting topic for your political science research paper. It is known that a topic that interests the writer is easy to write about.

* Once the topic is chosen, conduct thorough research using all the possible sources of information. Make sure to only use relevant and most authentic sources for your research papers. After completing the research, arrange all the research material in a systematic order to be able to use it effectively in your political science research paper.

* After arranging the research material and making relevant notes, prepare an outline for your political science research paper. A standard outline for political science research papers is based on the following sections:

Parts of a research paper

A typical research paper includes a title page, introduction, main body or arguments section, counter argument (if required) and a conclusion. Some institutions may also require an abstract, appendix, acknowledgements and a references and bibliographies section to be included in the research paper.

* Adopt a careful approach while writing your political science research paper. This means that you should know which type of information, data and references to add in the research paper and which not to.

* Your research paper writing should be in a flowing manner with each sentence and section composed as a logical and natural sequence of the previous ones.

* Make sure that you do not use any kind of plagiarism while writing your political science research paper because if you do, you won’t only lose marks but also your reputation as a decent student.

* Use least possible quotes from the research material and only if required. It is highly suggested to write in your own words as it shows your capabilities and knowledge of writing research papers.

* Cite all references properly and clearly in the references and bibliographies section.

The above would certainly help you write better research papers in the future. For further assistance, you can also get professional research paper help from www.academic-writing.net which is the leading provider of research paper writing services.…

Austrian Economics Vs Keynesian Economics

It is pivotal when attempting to understand politics to understand economics as well. Understandably, not everyone has a PhD in economics, but nevertheless the average joe can cultivate an impressive level of knowledge if the effort is put in. Most people just assume that recessions or depressions just happen on their own, or inflation just happens, too. They assume the business cycle is just a fact of the economy: that it goes up and down, but does it?

According to Austrian economics, a boom-bust cycle of malinvestment is generated by excessive and unsustainable credit expansion to businesses and individual borrowers by the banks. For example, consider the sub-prime mortgage calamity where excessive credit was extended. A boom taking place under these circumstances is actually a period of wasteful malinvestment, a “false boom” where the particular kinds of investments undertaken during the period of fiat money expansion are revealed to lead nowhere but to insolvency and unsustainability. In other words, the bubble leading up to the housing crisis was very artificial. A “credit crunch” arrives when the consumers come to reestablish their desired allocation of saving and consumption at prevailing interest rates. Austrians argue that any attempts by federal governments to prop up asset prices, bail out insolvent banks, or “stimulate” the economy with deficit spending will only make the misallocations and malinvestments worse, prolonging the depression and adjustment necessary to return to stable growth. Austrians argue the policy error rests in the central bank’s negligence in allowing the “false” credit-fueled boom to begin in the first place, not in having it end with fiscal “austerity”.

Austrians generally argue that inherently ineffective central bank policies, including unsustainable expansion of bank credit through fractional reserve lending, are the cause of business cycles, as they tend to set artificial interest rates too low for too long, resulting in excessive credit creation, speculative bubbles and artificially low savings. Under fiat money systems, central banks create new money when it lends to member banks, and this money is multiplied many times. This new bank-created money enters the loan market and provides a lower rate of interest than that which would prevail if the money supply were stable.

So what causes inflation according to Austrian economics? Inflation is usually the result of action taken by the central government or its central bank, which permits or allows an increase in the money supply. In other words, so called stimulus is not only ineffective, but serves to further damage the situation. Austrian economists push the importance of a gold standard, or letting the market decide. Without such sound money constraints, the potential for abuse and miscalculation is inherent.

Now let us discuss keynesian economics. In stark contrast to the principles of Austrian economics, advocates of Keynesian economics argue that private sector decisions sometimes lead to inefficient macroeconomic outcomes which require active policy responses by monetary actions by the central bank and fiscal policy actions by the government. They prefer a mixed economy, a predominantly private sector, but with …

Differences Between Formal and Informal Social Control

Social control can be considered as an important aspect of an individual’s socialization process. There are some universal norms or rules which should be followed by members of all societies. Any deviation from these norms may result in a minimum level of punishment for ensuring the social order. It refers to the processes of regulation of an individual or group behavior in a society, which encourages conformity and obedience. It may include social or political mechanisms. Its two forms are formal and informal controls.

Formal Social Control:

Formal social control is implemented by authorized agents including police officers, employers, military officers, and others. It is carried out as a last option at some places when the desired behavior is not possible through informal social control. The situations and severity where formal control is practiced varies with countries.

This is practiced through law as statutes, rules, and regulations against deviant social behavior. For example, certain laws like prohibition of murder can be directed at all members of a society. Fishing and hunting regulations are made for certain groups. Corporate laws are laid for governing the behavior of social institutions. Formal control is conducted by government and organizations through law enforcement mechanisms. It can also be conducted through some formal sanctions including fines and imprisonment. Processes of formal control in democratic societies are determined and designed through legislation by elected representatives.

Courts or judges, military officers, police officers, school systems or teachers, and government agencies or bureaucrats, enforce formal control.

Informal Social Control:

It is exercised by a society without stating any rules or laws. It is expressed through norms and customs. Social control is performed by informal agents on their own in an unofficial capacity. Traditional societies mostly embed informal social control culture to establish social order.

Shame, sarcasm, criticism, ridicule and disapproval are some of the informal sanctions. Social discrimination and exclusion are included in informal control at extreme deviant cases. Self-identity, self-worth and self-esteem are affected in informal control through loss of group approval or membership. The severity and nature of informal control mechanisms differ from varied individuals, groups, and societies.

Informal is effective in small group settings including friends, family, neighborhood, work group and others. However, in some large and complex societies, informal social control and disapproval is ignored easily. At such situations, it is necessary to follow the formal one.

Some of the differences of formal and informal social control are:

•Formal social control includes written, formalized and codified statements in laws, rules, and regulations. Whereas informal control does not contain any written rules.

•Formal control agencies are authorized ones created by government and informal control agencies are created by social networks and organizations but not by government.

•Formal control is much effective and stronger than informal social control. Any situations which cannot be handled by informal control are subjected to formal one.

•Formal control is effective for even large groups of population but informal control is effective only for a small group of people.

Social control, …

Police Officer – How to Get a Police Officer Job

Many individuals desire to become a police officer. There are several reasons why this profession may be chosen. Many individuals want to reach out to others, and help them. There are many who feel the need to be active members of the community. Still, there are some who simply have a passion for the high powered action of the law enforcement profession.

If you are one of the above, it is essential that you know and understand how to get police officer jobs. Here, I will review the police officer and how to get police officer jobs.

Understanding the Truth of Being a Police Officer

If you want to pursue a career as a police officer, there are certain truths that you will need to know, and gain an understanding of. Each and every single day that you go to work, you stand the chance of becoming injured, and possibly losing your life. This is more than a job; it is a way of life … a lifestyle … of dedicating yourself to the service of others.

You have to constantly evaluate yourself in an effort to uphold a high standard of professionalism. You must have a keen eye for that which is productive towards your career and that which is not. You must learn to "sense" danger, and "sense" the personalities of those that you encounter. Integrity, professionalism, and having a high standard are essential when it comes to being a police officer.

The Education of a Police Officer

When it comes to becoming a police officer, there is a set standard when it comes to education. The most common standard is graduation from a Criminal Justice School, or "Police Academy". In this part of your education, you will be required to cover and master high liability courses. These include first responder, defensive tactics, police driving, and the shooting range.

You will also cover laws, policies, procedures, and standards that govern law enforcement personnel in the United States. You will also be subjected to a high level of stress and physical activity. Not only is this course intended to make you physically stronger, it is designed to make you mentally and emotionally stronger as well. This necessary training will prepare you for life on the streets.

Choosing a Police Department

Once you graduate from a criminal justice school or police academy, it is time to find a department. You will want to take the time to research departmental policies, pay, benefits, and operations. You will also want to consider departments that cover areas that you are familiar with. You should have a resume completed, as well as a basic job application for the department.

As you have seen, becoming a police officer is not too hard – especially if you know what it takes. It is important to understand that this is one of the best jobs one can get. The reward is knowing that you are able to help "aid, protect, and serve" others than yourself, and that …

Technology’s Impact On Politics

We are all aware of the fast pace at which technology moves. During ones lifetime we can name several technological changes at different points in our lives. At least every five years, if not closer, there are very notable changes in technology which help us to keep our personal time lines in order. Technology is probably the third most referenced subject when trying to recall a time or an event; right after music and movies. How many times have you said, “The time that I did…. was when…. (technological reference)”, associating memories in your life with the technology of that same time? Many of us do. Just as it is easy to recall a song or movie you so enjoyed, it is just as easy to recall a change in technology.

Technology enables and actually even promotes changes in every aspect of our lives. Through the years technology has changed what and how we eat by way of the microwave, how and where we work by way of the internet, how we educate our children, how we appreciate music, how we are entertained, how much free time we have, and even how we keep in touch with friends and family. (You gotta love those social arenas like facebook!) Sometimes these changes can be quite difficult and even expensive to keep up with for those who even try. Either way, these changes have definitely been noticeable.

However, are we just as aware of the changes in politics throughout the years? Though the political game may not change as quickly as the pace of change in the technological game; there are definitely some notable changes in each one’s lifetime as far as the political area as well. Have you noticed any changes in the way politics are handled during your time? Changes in campaigning, fund raising and so forth? You don’t really have to look hard to find them. If you concern yourself with political history at all, I’m sure you could list a few.

Though many people notice the quick advance of technology throughout the years, many may not notice how technological advances have tied into changes in the way politics have been run. Much like every other area in life, technology has enabled or even promoted advances in politics too. The most noticeable changes occurred during our most recent Presidential campaign no doubt, Obama vs. McCain. Can you name some of the dramatic advances in campaigning during this time? There were many to choose from. The 2008 campaign year absolutely stepped up the political game and no doubt changed the way politics will be run forever. Still, I’m sure there will be more advances yet to come as technology continues to develop.

For a great article with more information on the tie of technology and politics, please read “Technology and It’s Political Impact”. This article is very interesting, informative, and enlightening.…

Murray Lawn Mowers: Many Complaints But Yet Reliable

The Murray lawn mowers owners are a harried lot. There are many complaints with Murray lawn mowers and not all of them are attended to. You might learn the positive points and negative points about Murray lawn Mowers

Incomplete Information On Murray Web Site

Murray web site is stingy about information on its own product. The information on the lawn mowers is not more than three or four sentences on each product. With such stinginess, it is no wonder that the product does not get a proper publicity and the result is reduced sale of product. Add to this number of complaints and the result is a dissatisfied consumer.

More Negative Than Positive – Murray Lawn mowers

Murray lawn mowers do not seem to enjoy a market reputation for better product. Many product recalls and many consumer complaints seems to tarnish reputation of Murray lawn mowers. Consumer safety products commission takes up the cases of the dissatisfied consumers and it has recently given instructions for recall of number of Murray products.

Recent Recalls Of Murray Lawn Mowers

Recently about 17 models of Murray lawn mowers were recalled on the orders of Consumer safety products commission. The case related to the safety of Murray lawn mowers and possibility of injury to the person working on lawn mower or just standing nearby.

The recall involved 20-, 21-, and 22-inch walk-behind lawn mowers and some 30-inch mid-engine riding lawn mowers. 38-, 40-, 42-, and 46-inch lawn tractors 46-inch garden tractors were also recalled by the company.

The problem was related to the plastic components of the lawn mowers that cracked when struck by the objects thrown by the blade. These parts could be ejected from the lawn mower completely unexpectedly and the nearby consumer could be injured. As of now no complaints have been received by the commission regarding the injury but the recall was initiated all the same to avoid possible injuries.

The total units recalled were about 8000 numbers.

One thing to be said positive about Murray Inc. was that it co-operated with commission and recalled the defective lawn mowers even before the chances of injury became a reality.

Consumer Complaints About Murray Lawn Mowers

Consumer complaint sites are replete with complaints about Murray lawn mowers. The major complaints were regarding

  • Part non-availability: Number of persons reported that parts of Murray lawn mowers were not easily available in the market. This meant that the machines were not available to the users for quite a long time after having spent lots of dollars in purchasing the lawn mowers.
  • Incomplete information: The web site states that the best place for spare parts is the local dealer but fails to give the addresses of the local dealers. The web site gives the addresses of many countries but fails to give the list of USA Service centers
  • Substandard parts: Many consumers have complained that the parts of Murray broke down and made the product useless. The non-availability of the spares added to the problems of

The Beginners Guide To Lawyers (What You Need To Know To Get Started)

How to Find the Best Family Lawyer in Ontario Canada It’s essential to choose the right lawyer for your particular family situation. A good lawyer can help you navigate through the complicated process of divorce, annulment, or child custody and can help you feel confident about your choices. On the other hand, an ill-equipped or inexperienced lawyer may end up making your case more difficult. An experienced family law attorney is knowledgeable the certain laws that apply to your case. It is in view of this fact that they may be able to use other avenues for arguing your case that you don’t know about. Here are some of the most important things to remember when looking for the best family lawyer in Ontario Canada. Narrow it Down to at Least Three Potential Attorneys
On Attorneys: My Experience Explained
Don’t hire the first lawyer you find. Not all family lawyers are created the same. Find at least three family law attorneys that you can interview before selecting the best one. Narrow down your list of lawyers and try to interview each one.
On Attorneys: My Thoughts Explained
Evidently, you need to hire a lawyer that specializes in family law and one that’s experienced in the particular case that you are in. How a lawyers responds to your concerns is very vital, but communication is a two way street. The lawyers must ask you a lot of questions, as well. Remember that the more questions you ask, the more you will understand the lawyer’s communication approach, personality and breadth of knowledge. Level of Experience The right lawyer for you has the legal knowledge and experience you require, helps you comprehend the process, communicates and negotiates well, fixes problems creatively and has adequate experience in your specific court system. This is also why you have to select one that’s local to you. Additionally, it is smart to select someone with at least a few years of experience in this specific field. Regardless of whether or not your case is headed to trial, your lawyer has to be experienced with the family law judges in your jurisdiction so that he or she can guide you properly on legal strategy. Clarify the Fees A cheap and good family lawyer most likely does not exist. If an attorney cannot negotiate his own fee, you do now want him negotiating on your behalf in court! So the crux of the matter is not whether a lawyer is expensive, but whether employing the attorney is cost-effective. Lawyers can choose to charge and bill in so many ways, so make sure you completely understand what hiring his services will entail financially. Moreover, be certain sure that you are clear on the payment process for any bills you incur.…

America’s Federal Reserve – The Politics of Loans and Inflation

The American economy is slowing down – perhaps even beginning to contract. As prices also rise and employment prospects weaken, the financial pressure on American consumers is driving down product demand and increasing the number of loans entering default. While the first quarter 2008 GDP number registers a weak positive growth rate, this definition of growth is dependent on an assumption about price inflation that does not necessarily match the increases at the gas station or grocery store. A number of analysts and economists are starting to come clean about the growing disconnect between the cost of living and the Consumer Price Index (CPI).

Inflation can mean a general increase in the cost of products and resources, but it can also refer to a specific case of price increases brought about by a proportionate increase in the total supply of money available. Since the value of money is pegged only to a supply and demand system, an increase in the money supply that isn’t backed by growth in productive capacity will always cause prices to rise. In America today, the money supply is mostly digital and in the form of credit created by banks through a fractional reserve system. Since mortgages, car purchases, and even education is provided with credit, the origination of any new loans causes an inflationary trend in the money supply. While the Federal Reserve could limit inflation by raising interest rates or increasing the amount of cash it takes out of the financial system, these would not be publicly popular moves as debt-based industries like real-estate, auto, and higher education would be forced to cut costs sharply.

Politicians are some of the biggest winners in the inflationary economic system. A constant devaluation of the currency leads to asset inflation, the illusion that assets such as stocks and real estate have gained in value. Inflation can also result from public deficit spending, thus giving politicians a way to pay for government projects without directly taxing anyone who might otherwise vote against being taxed. History suggests that the politically popular solution to rising prices is often a declaration of price controls, but price controls typically lead to shortages or huge government subsidy.

The ultimate enabler of the inflationary financial system and the seemingly endless supply of loans and credit is the Federal Reserve. It accomplishes this in several ways: Authorizing banks to create money through loans; Providing funds for politicians intent on deficit spending; and maintaining liquidity with cheap, direct loans to the failing banks when their own loans go bad. Without these specific political interventions carried out by the Federal Reserve, gasoline certainly wouldn’t cost four dollars a gallon.…