What is Physical Anthropology?

Anthropology is one of the most widely misunderstood scientific disciplines. This may be expected, since the word anthropology literally means "the study of man." That is quite an ambitious discipline! Because of this, anthropology often intersects and is informed by a wide variety of disciplines, such as: history, psychology, sociology, literature, religion, biology, political science, and philosophy.

Modern anthropology is divided into four major branches. These are: Cultural Anthropology, Archeology, Linguistics, and Physical Anthropology. This article will take a closer look at physical anthropology.

Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, is the study of the physical development of the human body and the human species (especially compared with other primates). Physical anthropologists also try to trace the evolution of humans and other primates. Physical anthropologists, above all things, love bones! Bones are the most common form of fossil evidence, and are a great way for anthropologists to trace the development of our species over time.

Physical anthropologists are usually pretty good at putting together a detailed profile of someone based only on a small bone fragment. By only examining a small part of a bone, they can often determine whether the person was male or female, what race they belonged to, their approximate height and weight, and their age. Because of this skill, physical anthropologists are often consulted when a police force is trying to resolve a crime, and many pursue practitioners in CSI work.

Because of its extremely technical nature about the human body, an undergraduate degree in physical anthropology is often an excellent preparatory course of study for admittance into medical school, although it is not the most common route.

Physical Anthropology can be grouped into several sub-branches. Some of these include:

Genetics:

This is the study of human DNA, how each person's DNA differs from another's, and how human DNA differs from related species.

Primatology:

This is the study of other primates. By studying apes and monkeys, anthropologists hope to gain more insight into human nature.

Behavioral Ecology:

This usually involves the study of modern hunter-gatherer groups. Cultural anthropologists are often interested in learning about the cultural practices of hunter-gatherers, but when physical anthropologists study them, they usually take more detailed measurements on things like: calories consumed per day, calories expended, time spent hunting / foraging, age at reproduction , Death and birth rates, etc. By collecting a large amount of data across many hunter-gatherer groups, anthropologists hope to put together a picture of the characteristics of a "natural" human.

There are many other sub-branches as well. Neuro-anthropologists study the human brain, and paleopathologists study diseases in ancient skeletons. Lately, physical anthropologists have been branching into the field of nutrition to share their ideas about the proper human diet based on their study of hunter-gatherers.

Hopefully this article taught you a little about the fascinating field of physical anthropology. Although the field is unknown to many people, physical anthropologists are diligently working to try to solve some of the most central problems of the human condition. …

Finding the Best Lawn Aerator

How to know which Lawn Aerator is the best deal?

Lawn aerators come in many different sizes and shapes. Price on lawn aerators range from $10 to $6000. What aerators are the best for their cost? When do you know if it is better to buy vs rent an aeration machine? Below we have assessed the benefits of several different types of aerators and their effectiveness.

Lawn Aerator Shoes- (Price $10-$40) Effectiveness (2 stars out of 5) Durability (1 of 5) Price Cost (4 of 5) Ease of use (4 of 5)

We give lawn Aerator shoes a 2.5 star rating overall. It is a great idea but the cheaper lawn aeration shoe models break easily. The shoes that actually work, need to be used quite regularly because the holes are so small they only last for about two weeks.

Liquid Lawn Aerator- ($25-50) Effectiveness (2.5 stars out of 5) Durability (2 of 5) Price Cost (3 of 5) Ease of use (4 of 5)

Overall Liquid Lawn Aeration has a 3 star rating. On a per application basis it is actually quite expensive. It can break up hard soils but the catch is that it works best when used in conjunction with mechanical lawn aeration.It should be applied in the fall or in the spring before the lawn gets to hard to aerate.

Hand Aerator- ($10-50) Effectiveness (2 stars out of 5) Durability (3 of 5) Price Cost (4 of 5) Ease of use (3 of 5)

Hand Aerators works great on small yards and parking strips. It is a very economical way to go if your lawn is small than 500 sq feet. But it is difficult to use once your lawn gets hard and it is time consuming. We suggest and aerator with only two coring spikes. We have had the best luck using this model. You can also use it on small patches of your lawn that get extra hard or when reseeding small areas.

Machine Core Aerator- ($40-110) Effectiveness (5 stars out of 5) Durability (4 of 5) Price Cost (2 of 5) Ease of use (2 of 5)

Using a mechanical core aerator on your lawn is the quickest way to see visible results. The down side is that you need to rent it and it is more expensive than aeration shoes or a hand aerator. These machine are very heavy they can do a great job. Many people can also aerate their lawn 2 or 3 times for better penetration and better results. Rental rates range from $40 to $110. Surprisingly, you can often find a local service willing to do it for the same price. The advantage of renting is you can do your neighbor’s lawn at the same time and split the cost.

Tow behind Lawn aerators are rated nearly identical to the mechanical ones. If you already own a riding mower you can get a lawn aerator attachment for 200-300 dollar. It works great on large lawns , but it …

Why Make Use Of Online Yard Sign Companies

A considerable number of companies use signage businesses as a cost-effective method of publicizing their business. There have been many pushes to help local companies get much more from their marketing budget. Today, companies want to be capable to assess their results to obtain a larger ROI. Nonetheless, there are discrepancies between sign companies particularly with respect to how much consumer support you obtain. Typically with an online sign company, you’re likely to get significantly less feedback on your signs than if you work with a regular sign business. Nevertheless, the trade off is that the cost you pay for your signs will be substantially less too. You need to design signs for your business according to the type of organization you operate. Your signage is one of the 1st things your visitors see when they go to your shop so it needs to have a lasting, memorable impression.

What Kind Of Signage Is Offered?

The best sign companies can make a wide variety of signage items. These items range from vinyl banners and yard signs to real estate and political signs. Advertising via signage is an low-cost advertising method that more and more organizations are coming to realize. The finest sign companies will also allow you to produce custom made signage and not need to order pre-made signs. They will also allow you to add your logo to print on your signs. When designing signs, it’s crucial to think about how much use you’ll get out of them. If you are capable to reuse your signs, your marketing expenditures continue to drop. If you are purchasing a sign product you are not really familiar with, the good sign companies will give you recommendations on how to care for the signs. This just lengthens the life of the signs providing you more value. Signage doesn’t have to be big to have a large impact either. Many sign companies are also transitioning into the business cards printing segment, a spin-off of what they’re as of now advertising.

How To Pick A Signage Company

If you do not possess a sign company that you are used to using, you are able to discover numerous on the web to choose from. 1st you’ll have to decide whether you would like to use an online sign company and save funds or use a local sign company. Both choices have their advantages and disadvantages. Some online sign businesses have poor service which they can get away with since they do not have the exact same face-to-face interaction that nearby sign businesses experience. The best sign businesses are always staying current on news in the signage industry and acting appropriately to bring in new technology which will put them ahead of the competition. When you are choosing your sign company, we propose that you do some research and check with a few businesses to make certain you are getting the finest quality for the price you would like to pay. 1 cool thing about using an …

Scary Creatures on the Prowl – A Happy Hollywood Halloween

Don’t just settle for witches and princesses this Halloween. Other than dressing like scary creatures meant to give party-goers a heart attack, why not try to be inspired by Hollywood stars this Halloween 2008?

When in Hollywood, Halloween is never something to fear. With lots of parties leading up to the thriller season, fans could feast on the sight of their favorite stars donning hot costumes that would make you love the darkness of November 1.

Celebrities become willing victims of fashion every Halloween. This is the probably the only time when the red carpet is laid out for over-the-top, freakish and downright tacky Hollywood fashion sense. It’s only during these events when celebrities can proudly come up to the fashion police dressing like a killer clown, demented ballerina, Hercules, or some wild mythical animal, without being ridiculed or crushed in the tabloids.

Last year’s famous Hollywood Halloween parties showcased a lot of interestingly scary fictional creatures portrayed by some headline-making stars. Paris Hilton shocked everyone when she came out as a freakish blue-eyed Alice in Wonderland. Basketball rebel, Dennis Rodman was in a very festive mode last Halloween co-playing as, well, himself, only prettier. Victoria Secret’s dream, Heidi Klum bashed the party with a tempting red apple costume together with husband, Seal, as Eve. Everybody was waiting for Britney Spears to come and considering what will be her Halloween costume. The most controversial star wearing unusual costume is really a highlight for the press.

Everyone is definitely on the lookout for more show-stopping costumes and entities that these celebrities would be sporting for Halloween 2008. Because of the buzz created by the Batman movie, chances are that this November, bats will be all around the hottest parties guarding not only Gotham City, but the streets of Hollywood, as well. Spider-man will be around your friendly neighborhood, too…probably hanging out with Batman for the season of fright.

Politics is also an odd mix to the Halloween fever as famous politicians Sarah Palin and Barrack Obama are expected to be the main squeeze. They may not be scary (literally) enough for this season, but coming out as these political figures would absolutely earn some stares.

Hannah Montana, the queen of tweens, is an inspiration for costumes this year. Don’t be surprise when a bevy of little girls looking like Hannah Montana knock on your door for treats. Though definitely not a strange creature, Hannah Montana is a creative costume idea to gain some attention this Halloween.

Traditional costumes like witches, princess and boogieman are still in this ghostly season of November. From mythical animals, strange creatures, and fictional creatures of the night to the most Hollywood inspired, trendy costumes this Halloween 2008 is sure to give you a fright and some amount of fun alongside parties and booze.…

How to Make Your Electric Hedge Trimmer Last

The best time to use your electric hedge trimmer is in very late fall or early spring. This is when the growing season is over and the trees are not producing sap. It’s the easiest way to trim up your trees and bushes without making a mess.

Unfortunately, the trees and bushes don’t always cooperate really well with this plan and will cause you to have to do some trimming and pruning throughout the summer. This can cause your trimmer blades to get sappy or gummy. Some users recommend spraying the blades with a lubricant before each use to keep them clean. It’s also recommended to try soaking the blades in kerosene for a few minutes to clear out the gum.

Whether you’re using a cordless or electric version, you’ll need to make sure you properly care for your hedge trimmer to make it last as long as possible. Just like your push lawn mower, the engine on your trimmer will need to be serviced once in a while to make sure it’s running at top shape. Keeping it clean and serviced regularly will help it last.

Be sure to properly store your lawn equipment in a clean, dry place like your shed or garage. Don’t leave your hedge trimmer out in the rain ever. It’s best to clean it after each use. This will establish good habits of proper care and will give you the longest life of your equipment.

Check with the provider, if you have a Stihl, Makita, Ryobi, or Black and Decker brand to see what kind of servicing is available. These are the most common brands, but others will probably also service their equipment for you. If you haven’t purchased an electric hedge trimmer yet, be sure you include the available servicing in your research. This will help you to make sure you’re getting a quality product that will last the longest amount of time. Look for product reviews and comparisons. Pay particular attention to the ones written by consumers as these will be the most candid.…

Before You Store Your Lawn Mower For Winter

You probably use your lawn mower quite a bit in the late spring, summer months, and sometimes the early fall. While you should be keeping up with the maintenance of your mower all through those months of use, once it's time for you to store away your lawn mower for winter, there are some things you'll definitely need to do. Keep these tips in mind to make sure that your lawn mower is ready to go when the next season for mowing coming around.

First of all, you need to change the engine oil and change the oil filter as well as the air filter. This way you start out next season with new oil and new filters in place. You should make sure that the gas is out of the fuel tank as well. You can run it out or empty the fuel tank. If you are going to leave any fuel in the tank, then you need to put some additive in that will keep it from gumming up during the winter months.

There are several areas that you'll want to lubricate before you store the lawn mower for winter. You should add some engine oil to the cylinders and then put the spark plugs back in. Treat all the metal surfaces on the mower deck with a material that prevents rust. Make sure that the grass is all cleaned out of the mower deck and the rest of the mower too.

If you have an electric mower, remove the power cord and get rid of the negative cable that is on the battery during the winter. If you make sure to do all these steps before you store the mower for the winter time, when you get out the mower in the spring, it will help make sure that everything is still in great shape. …

Lawn Mower Accessories Are a Big Part of Your Landscaping

For managing a well groomed yard or commercial landscape, the right equipment is vital. Fortunately, there is a specialized piece of machinery designed for just about any task you may come across. For example, if you are grooming a very large grassy area, a ride on lawn mower is necessary. Not only that, it should come with a mulching deck that allows the freshly cut grass to breathe as well as saving you money on fertilizer. John Deere is known for its quality machines, as is Murray. There are also replacement blades, baggers, landscape rakes, and mojack lifts should you need to make any replacements or repairs. Now, it’s not that they break often, but no matter how well you take care of your equipment it will wear out.

Here’s a tip though: Be sure you don’t let gasoline sit in your mower. This is a common mistake people make because they aren’t used to monitoring the gas in their car. However, think about how often you drive your car. The gas gets used, and doesn’t simply sit there. For mowing equipment, it’s very possible that you will go longer than thirty days without using your machine. At that point, it’s crucial to change the gas. If you don’t, you might be looking at replacing the engine, which is not cheap.

More likely than not, though, you’ll have a smaller yard. In that case, stick to the walk behind push mowers. These are the standard gasoline types made by companies like Husqvarna, Reel, Simplicity, and Troy Built. For even smaller yards, think about a cordless electric mower. These quiet machines by companies like Honda and Black & Decker will save you money over time.

For tighter spots, you’re going to need an edger or trimmer. Worx and Mantis both make these the right way. A good garden edger will keep all these hard to reach blades of grass trim. Get a retractable hose to wash the whole thing down and you’ll have the best looking yard on the block.…

General Stonewall Jackson’s 1861 Civil War Battle Plan

In 1861 and the beginning of the Civil War, Thomas J. Jackson, the West Virginia Confederate General who would later become known as “Stonewall” Jackson, believed he had the key to a quick and sure victory for the newly formed Confederacy. His ambitious plan was to invade the United States from the panhandle of northern Virginia and continue north all the way to Canada. His plan made good military sense as it would carry the war to the enemy and effectively divide the eastern from the western states. Not only would this invasion be a good logistical move but would give the Confederate States of America legitimacy with foreign countries and the opening of foreign trade relations.

In Jackson’s mind, Confederate control of the railways and turnpikes in the Trans-Allegheny area would be crucial to its defense of the Shenandoah Valley and it’s ready source of supplies in the Virginia heartland.  Unfortunately for the CSA, Stonewall Jackson’s plan for invading the United States was to be overruled by the Generals in Richmond. Politics in the new Confederate States had yet to be ironed out to say the least.

Going forward with Richmond’s orders, General Jackson, having been raised in Western Virginia (which was to become the state of West Virginia) knew that transportation routes were far and few between in the rugged mountainous terrain. The dense forests and mountains posed logistical problems in moving supplies and large numbers of people through the area. There were very few roads and the rivers were not large enough to navigate. There were few railways in the area but they were the most efficient means of transporting supplies.

West Virginia would see both the United States and the Confederacy in a constant struggle to control these vital railroads and other transportation routes. Use of these routes was important to both sides but was critical logistically to the South’s being able to re-supply their commissary from the Shenandoah Valley

In time both sides learned hard lessons in that the mountains and valleys proved difficult to build fortifications that effectively protected important logistical positions on the few roads and railroads. The Civil War in Western Virginia was to largely become a war of flanking tactics, battles that were more skirmishes than full fledged battles and deadly hit and run warfare. The Union by sheer numbers had a definite advantage in moving supplies. Even with this advantage the Confederates proved to be a significant foe in disrupting supply lines.

General Jackson’s ambitious plan to invade the United States from Western Virginia was not to be. Even with the North’s superior forces, the Shenandoah Valley was never won by their drive eastward. The Confederates forces coming from the east were equally ineffective due to logistical and political infighting. Had the powers in Richmond implemented General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson’s invasion plans as he saw them, would the war have had a different outcome? Probably not, but the history of the Civil War would have surly been re-written.…

Tips on Choosing the Right Lawn Sprinklers For You

Every gardener knows that using lawn sprinklers is the best way of keeping your garden lawn looking healthy and vibrant, but with so many different types to choose from it can be a bit confusing which one would be best for you.

Here I will give you information on the more popular types of lawn sprinklers available today, the first thing to consider is the size of your lawn, this is a major factor when determining which sprinkler is best. If you have a large garden lawn and do not have the time to go round and control the watering in different areas, then you should look at installing an automatic in-ground sprinkler system. This type of system can be expensive and time consuming to install, and is not recommended for your average garden lawn. For your average garden lawn using a stand alone water sprinkler which connects to a water outlet via a hosepipe is perfectly adequate for watering your lawn.

This type can consist of the Oscillating sprinkler which has a long tube with various openings, by moving back and forth it omits a fan shaped cascade of water to cover your lawn. Another type is the impact sprinkler, this rotates around in a circle and omits a single jet of water making that familiar clicking sound you here when they are running. The rotating type sprinkler will have two or more arms attached to it, this helps it to dispatch the water in a complete circle around your garden. Another popular type of lawn sprinkler is the sprinkler hose, this is a hose that lies along the ground and has tiny holes along the length of it, this type covers a long rectangular area when in operation.

While choosing the right lawn sprinklers for your garden lawn is important, it is also important to understand when to water your lawn and notice the signs that it needs watering. Garden lawns require much more water when the weather is hot and sunny, because grass is mostly composed of water it is important to get your watering regular correct when the weather is hot and dry. If you are not sure when to water your lawn then you can look for signs that it needs some water, this will be the grass going brown in places and generally looking really dry and dull.

The best time to water your garden lawn would be early in the morning if possible, this will give the water time to get down to the roots where it is needed before the hot midday sun evaporates it. One thing you should be careful of is not to over water your lawn, this can lead to problems such as disease and infestations if your lawn is constantly wet through the day. If your garden lawn does get the dry brown patches on it, then do not panic this might not mean the grass is dead it probably just needs some extra water to bring it …

Scary Creatures on the Prowl: a Happy Hollywood Halloween

Don’t just settle for witches and princesses this Halloween. Other than dressing like scary creatures meant to give party-goers a heart attack, why not try to be inspired by Hollywood stars this Halloween 2008?

When in Hollywood, Halloween is never something to fear. With lots of parties leading up to the thriller season, fans could feast on the sight of their favorite stars donning hot costumes that would make you love the darkness of November 1.

Celebrities become willing victims of fashion every Halloween. This is the probably the only time when the red carpet is laid out for over-the-top, freakish and downright tacky Hollywood fashion sense. It’s only during these events when celebrities can proudly come up to the fashion police dressing like a killer clown, demented ballerina, Hercules, or some wild mythical animal, without being ridiculed or crushed in the tabloids.

Last year’s famous Hollywood Halloween parties showcased a lot of interestingly scary fictional creatures portrayed by some headline-making stars. Paris Hilton shocked everyone when she came out as a freakish blue-eyed Alice in Wonderland. Basketball rebel, Dennis Rodman was in a very festive mode last Halloween cosplaying as, well, himself, only prettier. Victoria Secret’s dream, Heidi Klum bashed the party with a tempting red apple costume together with husband, Seal, as Eve.

Everyone is definitely on the lookout for more show-stopping costumes and entities that these celebrities would be sporting for Halloween 2008. Because of the buzz created by the Batman movie, chances are that this November, bats will be all around the hottest parties guarding not only Gotham City, but the streets of Hollywood, as well. Spider-man will be around your friendly neighborhood, too…probably hanging out with Batman for the season of fright.

Politics is also an odd mix to the Halloween fever as famous politicians Sarah Palin and Barrack Obama are expected to be the main squeeze. They may not be scary (literally) enough for this season, but coming out as these political figures would absolutely earn some stares.

Hannah Montana, the queen of tweens, is an inspiration for costumes this year. Don’t be surprise when a bevy of little girls looking like Hannah Montana knock on your door for treats. Though definitely not a strange creature, Hannah Montana is a creative costume idea to gain some attention this Halloween.

Traditional costumes like witches, princess and boogieman are still in this ghostly season of November. From mythical animals, strange creatures, and fictional creatures of the night to the most Hollywood inspired, trendy costumes this Halloween 2008 is sure to give you a fright and some amount of fun alongside parties and booze.…