A Career As A Government Spokesperson

Qualifications And Other Requirements

The minimum qualification required to be a government spokesperson is to have a bachelor's degree either in political science, business administration or public administration. The spokesperson could also posses a college or university degree in communication, journalism or English. It is a bonus if the candidate has experience as a spokesperson in print, radio and camera interviews. One may also be required to be fluent in another foreign language and be good at public relations. The person needs to possess good communication skills. Candidates have to go through a background security investigation, residential status investigation and a drug screening.

The candidates should have at least ten years of experience in communication, public relations, member services and legislation, which should include five years of experience in management and supervision. They should be able to manage multi-million dollar budgets as well.


The executive director of a particular government has the right to appoint the government spokesperson. In some countries, the regional minister is generally the government spokesperson and is the one who represents the government. In the United States, this is usually the Press Secretary.

Office Of The Spokesperson

A government spokesperson works in the communications department of a government office. Well, to put it the right way, the government spokesperson is the head of the communication department. It is also known as the "Government Spokesperson's Office" by law. This office is composed of an administrative unit. This administrative unit supports them and they have to report to him / her. The employees in the communication department assist the spokesperson with their daily work.


The spokesperson has to manage and lead various activities such as media relations, public affairs, member services, public involvement, community involvement, sub-regional relations and legislation. They have to carry out a number of functions in their daily work, the most important of them being "communication".

A spokesperson has to communicate to people the work done (ie political and institutional) by the government. The task of assisting and supporting the members of the government and the government itself is assigned to the spokesperson. They have to brief the president about the daily events in the state and the rest of the country. The government spokesperson has organized press meetings and talk to the press. The interview may be either given on the local, national or international level. Before giving a press interview the government spokes person has to discuss the report with the director and obtain their approval to release it.

The salary could be anywhere between $ 50,000 to $ 250,000. This salary is exclusive of bonus and other benefits. …

What Constitutes Illegal Search and Seizure?

The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects citizens from illegal search and seizure of property by limiting the power of police to conduct searches of private property and seizure of objects. The Fourth Amendment specifically protects citizens against unreasonable search and seizure. Therefore, there are circumstances where police may search your person, home, car, or other property if they can demonstrable probable cause for needing to do so.

Search warrants and probable cause

Law enforcement officials may petition a member of the judicial department for a search warrant in cases where they believe they have probable cause to search or seize private property. The warrant must include precise reasons for probable cause and details on the specific place and items that are to be searched. For instance, if a warrant states that police may only search your basement and they search another area of ​​the home as well, anything located from elsewhere in the home may be considered evidence obtained illegally.

Use of evidence in court

Evidence that is obtained illegally is not admissible in court. Although illegally identified evidence can not be the direct cause of a conviction, an illegal search does not mean the case will be automatically dismissed. The case may still proceed if there is enough other evidence against the defender.

In some cases, evidence located illegally can still be considered in sending and may be admissible in civil or deportation cases. Furthermore, evidence that results from an illegal search may not be used to discover other evidence. This is known as the "fruit of the poisonous tree" doctrine.


The Fourth Amendment is applicable in situations where there is a legitimate expectation of privacy. Therefore, if you are driving with illegal drugs in plain view in your car and police pull you over and seize them, you would not be protected by the Fourth Amendment because they were clearly in public view.

It is also important to note that the Fourth Amendment applies only to government officials, such as police officers. It does not protect you against searches by private, non-governmental security officers, including mall or supermarket security guards. If a non-governmental security officer seizes property from you and turns it over to the police, this may be admissible in court since the Fourth Amendment does not block private security guards from seizing your property.

Criminal defense lawyers

If you have had your property searched or designated as part of a criminal investigation, it is important that you have an attorney looking out for your rights. Experienced criminal defense attorneys have the necessary expertise and understanding of the complexities of search and seizure laws to ensure that any property located without proper protocol will not be used against you in court.

Many lawyers have seen many cases where evidence is dismissed because law enforcement has violated the constitutional rights of defenders. However, it is very rare for defenders who do not have legal counsel to have evidence withdrawn for these reasons-the legal processes …

Want to Change the World? Become a Government Policy Maker in 3 Steps

From health care reform to global warming legislation, change that will affect us and future generations is happening now. If you feel passionate about these issues and want to get involved on a daily basis, why not make a career out of it by becoming a government policymaker? Here’s how:

Step 1: Earn a Bachelor’s Degree

Most government policy makers get their start working as sociologists or political scientists, so a sociology or political science degree is a good place to start. These degrees will teach you how to study people, society, and politics, as well as how these three systems interact. Don’t forget to take some statistics classes too; those skills will help you interpret and understand the monstrous amount of data that government policy makers are expected to analyze.

Step 2: Become a Sociologist or a Political Scientist

To become a policy maker, you’ll need to get your feet wet doing research as a sociologist or political scientist. You’ll study groups of people, observe how they interact, and analyze different political systems. The more data you can crunch, the better, as you’ll need those skills to become a government policy. In the start of your career, or even before you graduate college, look to intern or volunteer to make valuable contacts and get the experience you’ll need. For more information, visit this sociologist career profile.

Step 3: Become a Government Policy Maker

As a policy maker, you’ll use your analytical skills and your knowledge of people, society, and political systems to draft legislation that will make our country a better place for everyone. You may also study government systems of the past to try to learn what worked and what can be improved upon for the future. For more information, visit this government policy maker career profile.…

Review Of Amistad: A Novel By David Pesci

This great book by David Pesci remains an essential read for the understanding of the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

The story begins with Singbe, a Mende slave, waking up to the frozen touch of a child’s corpse. From the very first words in the book, the reader’s nightmare begins as Singbe’s ordeal and the story of slavery is narrated with such chilling clarity and skill.

The Amistad (which means friendship), a Spanish slave-ship, makes its way across the Atlantic destined for the coast of Cuba with its human cargo. The snatching of slaves from Africa, though outlawed by the British and the Americans in 1809, continued for many years since the Spanish and Portuguese governments were not bound by these laws.

Ferrying Singbe and his group must have been a routine voyage for Captain Ramon Ferrer and his men. After all he and his crew had been running slaves for more than twenty years. But against wretched odds, Singbe and his men took over the control of the Amistad. The cook and captain were killed in the skirmish. But the slaves had no intention slaughtering the entire crew in retribution. All they wanted was to go home.

Since they knew nothing about seamanship they had to rely on one of the sailors, Montez, to steer the ship back to Africa. But through guile, Montez manoeuvres the wheels the other way and the ship ended up along the coast of America, setting off a political tempest of Shakespearean proportions.

The book therefore is mainly about the tribulations of the captured slaves as the American justice system decided on their fate. Interestingly it is only the Africans who had to face the courts to establish their innocence, and not their Spanish captors. They have to secure their own counsel while the US Secretary of State instructs the Federal District Attorney of New York to extend the Spaniards, Ruiz and Montez, ‘every courtesy and measure of legal assistance’.

Thus even though, to America’s credit, the battle was to be fought in the courts, the Africans were ‘going against entrenched sentiment regarding the black race and a system which has legally condoned slavery for more than two hundred years.’

The legal arguments on both sides were fierce, intricate and beguiling. Were the Africans property of the Spanish merchants Ruiz and Montez? If this was the case they would have to be returned to the control of the Spanish authorities and for trial under the Spanish courts. Or were they free men stolen from the coast of Africa? If this was the case then the American government, according to its own laws, would have to ensure their safe return back to Africa.

Did they commit murder when they wrested control of the ship, or were their actions to be considered self-defence and a justifiable attempt to free themselves from illegal bondage? Judge Judson found in the favour of the Africans to the detriment of his aspirations to …

Public School Law & Educational Laws and Policies, Employment Law, Contracts, Due Process, Dr. W.A. Kritsonis

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Public School Law & Educational Laws and Policies



          When we speak of employment, we find that the public school system is the largest employer in the state of Texas. The full scope of the employment relationship examines the constitutional concept of due process of law, the different employment arrangements that are available to public schools in Texas, the hiring and firing process, and the legal issues that arise in that context (Walsh, Kemerer, and Maniotis, 2005).

          For the purpose of this report, we will present ten cases as they relate to the different employment arrangements found in public education. The findings are intended to be informative and beneficial in terms of “at-will employees”, “Non-Chapter 21 Contracts”, “probationary contracts”, “term contracts”, “continuing contracts”, and “third-party independent contractor.” 

Case One

United States Court of Appeals,

Fifth Circuit.

Emilio MONTEZ, et al., Plaintiffs-Appellants,



No. 87 – 5501



Plaintiffs-Appellants: Emilio Montez, et. al



In 1979 Montez was hired to teach in the Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps program. Montez has never been certified as a teacher by the responsible authorities of the State of Texas. His initial employment was validated on October 15, 1979 when the Texas Education Agency issued him an Emergency Teaching Permit. That permit expired on August 31, 1980 and was never reissued. Montez continued to work until September 1985 when he was notified of the anticipated termination of his employment. After two hearings before the school district authorities, Montez was discharged at the end of the 1985-86 school year.


Emilio Montez appeals a summary judgment rejecting his claims under the Fifth and Fourteenth amendments and 42 U.S.C. series 1983. He alleges wrongful termination by the SAN ANTONIO ISD of his employment as an instructor in the JROTC program. The district court found no genuine issue of material fact and concluded that Montez had not been denied due process as relates to a claimed property interest.

The United States District Court for the Western District of Texas, at San Antonio, H. F. Garcia, J., granted summary judgment against instructor. Instructor appealed.


In order to establish due process deprivation of property interest under the Fourteenth Amendment, plaintiff must establish that he had “legitimate claim of entitlement” to that interest. Montez who was hired to teach in the JROTC program was employed under “continuing contracts” after his emergency teaching permit expired.

When he was subsequently discharged by the school district, it was determined that he was not “teacher”, for purposes of Texas “tenure law” granting “teachers” legitimate claim of entitlement to, and protection under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The instructor never held required permanent teaching certificate, and any contract purporting to give instructor more than that allowed by Texas law was beyond the power of the school district and could not bestow property interest on instructor.

Montez contends that, even if his contracts were …

Cost Effective Law Enforcement Aerial Patrol

While many of our law enforcement officers will make a major stand in regards to flying helicopters and the versatility of the helicopter, for many law enforcement agencies there are far more cost effective options available to perform many of the same mission roles as a helicopter.

Starting with the helicopter it does offer vertical takeoff and decent as well as hover capability. Hover capability is vital for performing officer insertion or extraction in confined areas where landing is not normally practical. Hover capability is also critical for life rescue work.

We now enter into an area that may turn a few heads. How often and how needed are these capabilities for your particular organization? Larger cities or metropolitan areas may in fact need all of the capabilities of a helicopter and may have the need even for a large helicopter for proper tactical deployment of personnel and or equipment. Now if an analytical approach to bang for the buck is applied to a majority of law enforcement missions, the actual number of times per year that these capabilities were utilized are most likely very low. For many cities not willing or by the private service of EMS helicopter operators, or the services of the Coast Guard, many EMS missions are not even covered by law enforcement agencies.

Large cities and metro departments can even benefit from a slightly mixed fleet of affordable aircraft and more expensive helicopters. With smaller cheaper aircraft to perform normal patrols and surveillance with the more mission – enhanced aircraft providing the special mission services it can offer.

Many law enforcement agencies not only in the United States but also across the world have made some very significant purchases in regards to new helicopters in the past few years. Aircraft such as the Eurocopter B2 and B3’s as well as Bell 206 L4 and 407 helicopters. Agencies have been replacing older aircraft with high component and or high airframe times with newer aircraft with more performance and the ability to safely carry the many mission support tools needed for airborne law enforcement.

Agencies have been able to find ways to procure new aircraft but very often the maintenance and repair area after the initial purchase is overlooked. Right along with this oversight is the increased operational costs and possible increase in insurance costs associated with the new purchase. A typical scenario seen across the industry is when an aircraft enters a major inspection is that the money needed to repair or replace the inspection items is often not available or was not budgeted for in the maintenance operating budget. This can be an administrative short-sight, an agency with a fixed maintenance budget, inaccurate information on DOC’s (Direct Operating Costs) as the area in which you operate may have more atmospheric contaminates to cause corrosion that were not taken into account at the time of purchase. Another possibility can be the hours that were actually flown exceeded the planned hours for the budget, this brings those …

Social Science Careers in Today's Job Market

The range of academic disciplines that fall within the social science classification includes anthropologists, archaeologists, psychologists, geographers, historians, political scientists, economists, and urban or regional planners. That's a wide range of expertise; It includes looking at cultures present and past, studying their behavior, their economics and the ground benefit them.

Many of these positions are primarily research oriented. According to the Department of Labor, over 40% of all social scientists exclusive of psychologists and urban planners work for the federal government. It's a good guess that another large group of them teach. The social sciences comprise a number of fascinating fields; But the number of professionals who have gotten a social science education and are able to utilize it in a commercial or business environment is limited.

  • Psychologists are an exception to that rule. Clinical psychologists must hold a doctorate and maintain strict license. However there are a number of career options for graduates form a bachelors or masters program in psychology. Human resource departments in medium and large businesses hire psychology majors to work as interviewers, trainers or recruiters. Any sort of job that involves extensive human contact and interaction – sales, account management, counseling jobs that do not require special licensure, probation and parole workers – all of these professions have psychology graduations in their ranks.
  • Urban and regional planners engage in research, but for very specific purposes with clear objectives in mind. They work with statistics, economic data and demographics in order to produce recommendations on development questions or plans for a given geographic or political entity.
  • Political scientists who do graduate work usually teach. Students with a baccalaureate in political science may find a job opportunity within a municipal, county or state agency handling constituent work or dealing with active civic organizations. Some cut their teeth doing campaign work and eventually become political consultants.
  • Archaeologists who work for the government often survey proposed development sites to ascertain what, if any evidence may be found there that relates to historical use of the property. Many anthropologists have found a niche working with businesses that have product development divisions and that want information on how a product may be perceived and used by the public based cultural, physical or sociological factors. Geographers are generally employed by governments for the purpose of studying the physical impact of proposed development on a piece of real estate.
  • Graduates with a degree in economics have a lot of options, both in business and in government. Budget development is a major government function that occurs on an annual basis. Government agencies also look at the economic impact of many things, from proposed legislation to the closure of military bases to the economic model of a foreign nation. At the local level, city or county administrators employ economic professionals to manage finances and revenue. The same is true of businesses, where you may find a former economics student working as a risk manager, financial officer or budget analyst.

If you are interested in studying …


Equitable representation of women in the highest decision making body is an urgently required measure to empower the women politically. No nation could stand proud if it discriminates against any of its citizens, and no society could claim to be part of the modern civilized world unless it treated its women on par with men1.  In keeping with the point to provide gender equality in political arena the present government, the United Progressive Alliance (UPA),  has already promised in the Common Minimum Programme,  and has been trying to bring consensus among all political parties in favour of the women’s reservation Bill. The government has introduced women’s reservation bill, in the year 2008, in the Rajya Sabha amidst protests from opposition parties.  After this several attempts were made to introduce the bill in the Parliament but the government could not pass the bill, due to various political reasons.

The idea of reserving certain seats to women, it seems, was mooted by former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in the late 1980’s.  In 1988, the National Perspective Plan for Women suggested that a 30 per cent quota for women be introduced at all levels of elective bodies.  Women’s group insisted that reservation be restricted to the panchayat level to encourage grass-roots participation in politics.  The consensus around this demand resulted in the adoption of the 73rd and 74th amendments to the Indian Constitution in 1993.  In 1995, the question of quotas was raised again, but this time the focus was women’s representation in Parliament2.

In 1996 the United Front government led by Deva Gowda introduced the reservation bill in the Parliament but the bill was rejected in an uproar with, some male politicians arguing that women should stay at home where they really belonged.  The media had described the debate as the “battle of the sexes”.

Attempt to introduce the reservation bill in the Parliament reserving 33 per cent of seats for women have been scuppered by protests in the chamber of the lower house of the Parliament in the year 1998.  Male opponents of the bill, who said it would benefit only middle-class city women, continually disrupted proceedings, forcing several adjournments.  The then Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee described the opposition reaction to the bill as “disgracefull”3.

The present United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government led by Congress party is was keen to give 33 per cent reservation to women in Parliament4.  The Prime Minister convened the meeting of UPA constituents and its supporting parties, including the Left parties, on the proposed women’s reservation Bill.  The meeting did not produce consensus but several parties said they had agreed “in principle” with the idea of reserving one-third of the total number of seats for women in the state legislatures and also in Parliament5.  The reservation bill has been referred to the Parliament standing committee headed by senior Congress party leader Sudarshana Natchiappan.

Trend at the International level

The recent UNO report shows that Women hold just over 18 …

Obama and the 4 Key Trends in US Political-economy

For the first time in history, the Americans have elected a President who has never had a job. President-elect Obama has never worked in the private sector; never ran an organisation; never met a payroll; and never hired a single private sector employee. He was a city-state paid lawyer ‘organising’ his Chicago community to achieve his personal political ambitions. He is the ultimate insider and corrupt politician without a clue about policy, the economy, trade or foreign affairs. What he portends for the future direction of the US is not a positive.

The US is now on a very dangerous left-ward lurch – irregardless of the media’s rhetoric about how ‘centrist’ the new Black messiah will be. Obama and his friends, including most of the old Clinton administration which is now being hired into Obama’s government, are not centrist. It was the Republican Congress which dominated the politics of the 1990’s which kept budgets balanced, gave the US tax cuts, welfare reform and NAFTA and which made Clinton assume the role of an economic conservative. No such constraint exists today on an Obama administration. The Republicans have lost credibility, seats and are in disarray [how else can one explain Sarah Palin]. There is nothing to stop Obama from enacting his true beliefs and ones which he has openly espoused for 12 years in politics – large scale government ownership of production, social processes and the elimination of risk. It is the European model he has supported albeit in stages.

The US political-economy will only get worse after Obama’s coronation and this will be demonstrated over succeeding administrations. This means that whatever Obama will implement might only have future repercussions as opposed to an immediate impact. If Obama implements his big statist ideas not only will the US economy suffer further decline, the spending and program building developed in the next 4 years will be almost politically impossible to unravel. Government programs only grow, they never shrink.

We have seen this story repeated countless times in the past 100 years.

FDR’s failed domestic administration which prolonged the Great Depression and gutted US business, bequeathed to American taxpayers the socialist housing finance firms of Freddie and Fannie which were key players in the current housing finance meltdown; a bankrupt state managed social security system; and an inefficient socialised US health care system which has nothing whatsoever to do with free markets but which is badly in need of costly repair [US governments spend 60% of all health care dollars and firmly control the rest through legislation].

LBJ’s great socialist society program of the 1960s erected a huge welfare system which is now bankrupt with attendant and unforeseen social costs such as the destruction of Black families and massive illegal immigration. Welfare and ‘mandatory’ payments for social programs now constitute 80% of US federal government spending [which is now over $3 Trillion per year].

Bush and the current Congress and their desire to print and spend $3.5 Trillion, will likewise have enormous distortive …

Earn Online Credits For Political Science and Sociology Classes

If you’d like to learn a little bit about politics, and a little bit of about psychology with just a sprinkle of sociology then I recommend you go online and get yourself a free education participating with others on Internet in forums on political issues. What you will learn will be worth its weight in gold and is far better than earning online credits because you will get a taste of what the real world is all about, and what people are really thinking.

You see, people online often say what they are thinking whereas, if you meet them in public they may not say those kinds of things. There are many reasons for this, for instance, many people use screen names, or fake names online when they blog, go onto social networks, or post their thoughts in Internet forums.

If you really wish to get a handle upon what people are thinking about during the political season then you don’t have to go very far online to find a good intellectual debate on political topics. You will also find very quickly that far too many people have too much animosity, distrust of the government, and anger towards the other political parties that are not their own.

You will also learn the social dynamics of primate politics and how various people get together in groups and maneuver around to attack other people verbally, or gather support in order to project their argument onto opposing groups that thinks about an issue in a different way. There is probably no better place than going online to learn about political science and sociology. I hope you will please consider all this.…