A Career As A Government Spokesperson

Qualifications And Other Requirements

The minimum qualification required to be a government spokesperson is to have a bachelor's degree either in political science, business administration or public administration. The spokesperson could also posses a college or university degree in communication, journalism or English. It is a bonus if the candidate has experience as a spokesperson in print, radio and camera interviews. One may also be required to be fluent in another foreign language and be good at public relations. The person needs to possess good communication skills. Candidates have to go through a background security investigation, residential status investigation and a drug screening.

The candidates should have at least ten years of experience in communication, public relations, member services and legislation, which should include five years of experience in management and supervision. They should be able to manage multi-million dollar budgets as well.


The executive director of a particular government has the right to appoint the government spokesperson. In some countries, the regional minister is generally the government spokesperson and is the one who represents the government. In the United States, this is usually the Press Secretary.

Office Of The Spokesperson

A government spokesperson works in the communications department of a government office. Well, to put it the right way, the government spokesperson is the head of the communication department. It is also known as the "Government Spokesperson's Office" by law. This office is composed of an administrative unit. This administrative unit supports them and they have to report to him / her. The employees in the communication department assist the spokesperson with their daily work.


The spokesperson has to manage and lead various activities such as media relations, public affairs, member services, public involvement, community involvement, sub-regional relations and legislation. They have to carry out a number of functions in their daily work, the most important of them being "communication".

A spokesperson has to communicate to people the work done (ie political and institutional) by the government. The task of assisting and supporting the members of the government and the government itself is assigned to the spokesperson. They have to brief the president about the daily events in the state and the rest of the country. The government spokesperson has organized press meetings and talk to the press. The interview may be either given on the local, national or international level. Before giving a press interview the government spokes person has to discuss the report with the director and obtain their approval to release it.

The salary could be anywhere between $ 50,000 to $ 250,000. This salary is exclusive of bonus and other benefits. …

Korea Culture: Ixs

The traditional culture of Korea is historically shared by North Korea and South Korea Nevertheless, the current political separation of the north and the south of the peninsula results in some regional variance in the Korean culture.The different aspects of Korean culture, society, and customs can be observed by taking an in-depth look into Life in Korea.

Oriental Astrology : Oriental astrology assigns twelve animals according to the year of ones birth. It is opposite to Western astrology which goes by the month of ones birth. Koreans have firm belief that ones animal determines ones personality and fate. Each year holds different things in store for each animal.

Korean Buddhism : Buddhism was originated in India over 2,600 years ago. This religion was introduced to Korea by the travelers around the fourth century A.D. Since that time, Buddhism has greatly influenced Korean society, culture, and the arts.

Traditional Alcohol : Korea has created unique alcohols using rice malt.

Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) : The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), the symbol of the ideological dispute between North and South Korea and poignant reminder of the Korean War (1950-53), winds 155 miles across the Korean Peninsula. An uneasy truce continues between the antagonists, but no peace treaty has ever been signed. Review the Korean War and the various parts of the DMZ.

Taekwondo : Taekwondo is one of the most systematic and scientific of Korean traditional martial arts. This modern sport has gained an international reputation and has been included among the official sports in the Olympic Games.

Rice Cakes (Deok) : Korean traditional cakes have great importance on many occasions of happiness and sorrow. These cakes have long been shared among neighbors and friends on these special occasions.The cake shape, content, and color vary from one region to another.

Samulnori basically means “four instruments” and refers to the four instruments (kwaengwari, jing, janggu, buk) played by the musicians. It has roots in Buddhist and folk music. However, the style has changed through the years and evolved in different ways. Samulnori is the name of the traditional musical group. This group has great contributions in reviving interest in Korean traditional arts.

Traditional Patterns and Symbols : Korean people traditionally adapted to and found meaning in the order of nature. They have created beautiful and diverse patterns in order to teach the hidden meanings of nature to their children. They also want their children to believe nature as law and order in their daily lives.These patterns can be found in every aspect of Korean life, from the Taegeuk in the national flag to the animal designs on chopsticks in restaurants. Many symbols are similar to the Chinese characters for luck, fortune, longevity, and fertility.

Traditional Tools and Utensils : Many Korean traditional tools and utensils look very similar to those found in other agricultural societies: stone mills for grinding grains into powder, weaving looms for making clothes, and measuring tools for dispensing agricultural products. Korea also has many tools and utensils made from bamboo and …

What Constitutes Illegal Search and Seizure?

The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects citizens from illegal search and seizure of property by limiting the power of police to conduct searches of private property and seizure of objects. The Fourth Amendment specifically protects citizens against unreasonable search and seizure. Therefore, there are circumstances where police may search your person, home, car, or other property if they can demonstrable probable cause for needing to do so.

Search warrants and probable cause

Law enforcement officials may petition a member of the judicial department for a search warrant in cases where they believe they have probable cause to search or seize private property. The warrant must include precise reasons for probable cause and details on the specific place and items that are to be searched. For instance, if a warrant states that police may only search your basement and they search another area of ​​the home as well, anything located from elsewhere in the home may be considered evidence obtained illegally.

Use of evidence in court

Evidence that is obtained illegally is not admissible in court. Although illegally identified evidence can not be the direct cause of a conviction, an illegal search does not mean the case will be automatically dismissed. The case may still proceed if there is enough other evidence against the defender.

In some cases, evidence located illegally can still be considered in sending and may be admissible in civil or deportation cases. Furthermore, evidence that results from an illegal search may not be used to discover other evidence. This is known as the "fruit of the poisonous tree" doctrine.


The Fourth Amendment is applicable in situations where there is a legitimate expectation of privacy. Therefore, if you are driving with illegal drugs in plain view in your car and police pull you over and seize them, you would not be protected by the Fourth Amendment because they were clearly in public view.

It is also important to note that the Fourth Amendment applies only to government officials, such as police officers. It does not protect you against searches by private, non-governmental security officers, including mall or supermarket security guards. If a non-governmental security officer seizes property from you and turns it over to the police, this may be admissible in court since the Fourth Amendment does not block private security guards from seizing your property.

Criminal defense lawyers

If you have had your property searched or designated as part of a criminal investigation, it is important that you have an attorney looking out for your rights. Experienced criminal defense attorneys have the necessary expertise and understanding of the complexities of search and seizure laws to ensure that any property located without proper protocol will not be used against you in court.

Many lawyers have seen many cases where evidence is dismissed because law enforcement has violated the constitutional rights of defenders. However, it is very rare for defenders who do not have legal counsel to have evidence withdrawn for these reasons-the legal processes …

Search And Seizure Law

If you are accused of criminal charges or have been dropped over in your vehicle for some reason or another, the police may want to search your property. Understanding your rights is vital to ensuring that you do not allow police officers to overstep their legal boundaries.

The Protection of the Fourth Amendment

The Fourth Amendment of the US Constitution ensures every individual the right to be protected from unwarranted search and seizures, allowing individuals to raise their right to privacy. The Fourth Amendment also states that a warrant must be issued in order to allow law enforcement officials to search your home or property. For a warrant to be issued, probable cause must be presented and the warrant must contain the exact location to be searched, as well as the property that is approved to be sorted.

Police Misconduct

While law enforcement officials are granted power to protect the rights of the people, they often override the legal boundaries of their job. This often occurs during traffic stops and drug crime allegations. In some alarming recent reports, police officers have been seizing property and cash without appropriate warrants. If you are pushed over, know that it is your right to refuse to have your property searched. While the police may make you believe that they have the right to investigate your property whenever they please, they must prove probable due to want to look through the vehicle. Police misconduct is much more common than you think. If you believe that your vehicle was illegally searched, contact an attorney immediately to discuss the details of your case.

Without a warrant, the owner of the home or property must consented to a search before the police officer can begin one. Although this seems fairly simple, law enforcement officials have many tactics that use to try trick individuals into giving them consent to search the area or property. Do not forget, it is your legal right to refuse an investigation of your home or property.

An Attorney Can Help

Speaking with a skilled criminal defense attorney is the best way to determine whether your rights were violated during the search and seizure of your home or property. Contact a criminal defense attorney to discuss the details of your case. A licensed lawyer will carefully investigate all of the facts surrounding your case and work to unaware any misconduct on the part of the police. Understanding your rights is vital in protecting them. Allow a knowledgeable criminal defense attorney to help you better understand your legal rights. …

Review Of Amistad: A Novel By David Pesci

This great book by David Pesci remains an essential read for the understanding of the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

The story begins with Singbe, a Mende slave, waking up to the frozen touch of a child’s corpse. From the very first words in the book, the reader’s nightmare begins as Singbe’s ordeal and the story of slavery is narrated with such chilling clarity and skill.

The Amistad (which means friendship), a Spanish slave-ship, makes its way across the Atlantic destined for the coast of Cuba with its human cargo. The snatching of slaves from Africa, though outlawed by the British and the Americans in 1809, continued for many years since the Spanish and Portuguese governments were not bound by these laws.

Ferrying Singbe and his group must have been a routine voyage for Captain Ramon Ferrer and his men. After all he and his crew had been running slaves for more than twenty years. But against wretched odds, Singbe and his men took over the control of the Amistad. The cook and captain were killed in the skirmish. But the slaves had no intention slaughtering the entire crew in retribution. All they wanted was to go home.

Since they knew nothing about seamanship they had to rely on one of the sailors, Montez, to steer the ship back to Africa. But through guile, Montez manoeuvres the wheels the other way and the ship ended up along the coast of America, setting off a political tempest of Shakespearean proportions.

The book therefore is mainly about the tribulations of the captured slaves as the American justice system decided on their fate. Interestingly it is only the Africans who had to face the courts to establish their innocence, and not their Spanish captors. They have to secure their own counsel while the US Secretary of State instructs the Federal District Attorney of New York to extend the Spaniards, Ruiz and Montez, ‘every courtesy and measure of legal assistance’.

Thus even though, to America’s credit, the battle was to be fought in the courts, the Africans were ‘going against entrenched sentiment regarding the black race and a system which has legally condoned slavery for more than two hundred years.’

The legal arguments on both sides were fierce, intricate and beguiling. Were the Africans property of the Spanish merchants Ruiz and Montez? If this was the case they would have to be returned to the control of the Spanish authorities and for trial under the Spanish courts. Or were they free men stolen from the coast of Africa? If this was the case then the American government, according to its own laws, would have to ensure their safe return back to Africa.

Did they commit murder when they wrested control of the ship, or were their actions to be considered self-defence and a justifiable attempt to free themselves from illegal bondage? Judge Judson found in the favour of the Africans to the detriment of his aspirations to …

Public School Law & Educational Laws and Policies, Employment Law, Contracts, Due Process, Dr. W.A. Kritsonis

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Public School Law & Educational Laws and Policies



          When we speak of employment, we find that the public school system is the largest employer in the state of Texas. The full scope of the employment relationship examines the constitutional concept of due process of law, the different employment arrangements that are available to public schools in Texas, the hiring and firing process, and the legal issues that arise in that context (Walsh, Kemerer, and Maniotis, 2005).

          For the purpose of this report, we will present ten cases as they relate to the different employment arrangements found in public education. The findings are intended to be informative and beneficial in terms of “at-will employees”, “Non-Chapter 21 Contracts”, “probationary contracts”, “term contracts”, “continuing contracts”, and “third-party independent contractor.” 

Case One

United States Court of Appeals,

Fifth Circuit.

Emilio MONTEZ, et al., Plaintiffs-Appellants,



No. 87 – 5501



Plaintiffs-Appellants: Emilio Montez, et. al



In 1979 Montez was hired to teach in the Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps program. Montez has never been certified as a teacher by the responsible authorities of the State of Texas. His initial employment was validated on October 15, 1979 when the Texas Education Agency issued him an Emergency Teaching Permit. That permit expired on August 31, 1980 and was never reissued. Montez continued to work until September 1985 when he was notified of the anticipated termination of his employment. After two hearings before the school district authorities, Montez was discharged at the end of the 1985-86 school year.


Emilio Montez appeals a summary judgment rejecting his claims under the Fifth and Fourteenth amendments and 42 U.S.C. series 1983. He alleges wrongful termination by the SAN ANTONIO ISD of his employment as an instructor in the JROTC program. The district court found no genuine issue of material fact and concluded that Montez had not been denied due process as relates to a claimed property interest.

The United States District Court for the Western District of Texas, at San Antonio, H. F. Garcia, J., granted summary judgment against instructor. Instructor appealed.


In order to establish due process deprivation of property interest under the Fourteenth Amendment, plaintiff must establish that he had “legitimate claim of entitlement” to that interest. Montez who was hired to teach in the JROTC program was employed under “continuing contracts” after his emergency teaching permit expired.

When he was subsequently discharged by the school district, it was determined that he was not “teacher”, for purposes of Texas “tenure law” granting “teachers” legitimate claim of entitlement to, and protection under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The instructor never held required permanent teaching certificate, and any contract purporting to give instructor more than that allowed by Texas law was beyond the power of the school district and could not bestow property interest on instructor.

Montez contends that, even if his contracts were …

Cost Effective Law Enforcement Aerial Patrol

While many of our law enforcement officers will make a major stand in regards to flying helicopters and the versatility of the helicopter, for many law enforcement agencies there are far more cost effective options available to perform many of the same mission roles as a helicopter.

Starting with the helicopter it does offer vertical takeoff and decent as well as hover capability. Hover capability is vital for performing officer insertion or extraction in confined areas where landing is not normally practical. Hover capability is also critical for life rescue work.

We now enter into an area that may turn a few heads. How often and how needed are these capabilities for your particular organization? Larger cities or metropolitan areas may in fact need all of the capabilities of a helicopter and may have the need even for a large helicopter for proper tactical deployment of personnel and or equipment. Now if an analytical approach to bang for the buck is applied to a majority of law enforcement missions, the actual number of times per year that these capabilities were utilized are most likely very low. For many cities not willing or by the private service of EMS helicopter operators, or the services of the Coast Guard, many EMS missions are not even covered by law enforcement agencies.

Large cities and metro departments can even benefit from a slightly mixed fleet of affordable aircraft and more expensive helicopters. With smaller cheaper aircraft to perform normal patrols and surveillance with the more mission – enhanced aircraft providing the special mission services it can offer.

Many law enforcement agencies not only in the United States but also across the world have made some very significant purchases in regards to new helicopters in the past few years. Aircraft such as the Eurocopter B2 and B3’s as well as Bell 206 L4 and 407 helicopters. Agencies have been replacing older aircraft with high component and or high airframe times with newer aircraft with more performance and the ability to safely carry the many mission support tools needed for airborne law enforcement.

Agencies have been able to find ways to procure new aircraft but very often the maintenance and repair area after the initial purchase is overlooked. Right along with this oversight is the increased operational costs and possible increase in insurance costs associated with the new purchase. A typical scenario seen across the industry is when an aircraft enters a major inspection is that the money needed to repair or replace the inspection items is often not available or was not budgeted for in the maintenance operating budget. This can be an administrative short-sight, an agency with a fixed maintenance budget, inaccurate information on DOC’s (Direct Operating Costs) as the area in which you operate may have more atmospheric contaminates to cause corrosion that were not taken into account at the time of purchase. Another possibility can be the hours that were actually flown exceeded the planned hours for the budget, this brings those …

Annotated Bibliography- Criminology

Cook, P. J. (2010). Property crime-yes; violence-no. Criminology & Public Policy, 9 (4). The author of this article is a professor at Duke University. He discusses the relationship between business cycle and crime against property and persons in the U.S. He references a study published within the issue. The author stresses that business cycles are complex experiments with many crime-related variables changing simultaneously. He identifies and defines plausible mechanisms relating the business cycle to crime, including criminal opportunities, drugs and alcohol. Cook believes that the business cycle affects robbery and theft crimes but does not affect personal crimes. According to this article, economic recessions come with extensive commentary in the media about how failing economic conditions can give an explanation for increases in crime rates. This discussion has been fueled by criminologists with 150 years of study on the subject. From a policy perspective, Cook points out that this interest might be justified by the use of apportioning credit or blame for observed crime fluctuations. The author finds a positive link between the business cycle and crime. This finding is useful in forecastingcrime rates and budgeting accordingly. Additionally, the macroeconomic study of the crime rate is a good test for a familiar hypothesis regarding criminal behavior, that crime substitute’s lawful opportunity. In this view, the rate of crime should increase with a reduction in economic opportunity that takes place during a recession, just as most criminals have low income and poor employment prospects.

Crotty, W. S. (1998). Presidential Assassinations. Society, 35 (2). The author of this article is an associate professor of political science at Northwestern University. He examines presidential assassinations in the United States. He defines assassinations of political consequence as the murder of an individual, whether of public prominence or not, in an effort to achieve political gain. The author points out that any assassin will deliberate on how to assault his victim–the time, the place, the weapon to be used and the nature of the encounter. Among the assassinations reviewed in this article is President John F. Kennedy’s murder, the killing of Reverend Martin Luther King, Medgar Evers and Lincoln Rockwell. The continuing assassinations in concert with a decade of seemingly endless violence brought serious concern to Americans. The author classifies the assassinations into five categories to serve to explain patterns of assassination in the United States compared to other nations. These categories are; Anomic assassination, Elite substitution, Tyrannicide, Terroristic assassination and Propaganda by deed. In Crotty’s comparison of the level of assassinations in the United States with other nations, he finds that the United States has an alarmingly high level of political assassinations. The author examines the commonalities that appear in the assassination attempts directed against US presidents or presidential candidates by randomly categorizing the assassinations into similarities common to the victims and those related to the assailants. In the author’s findings, the notion of rationality is never intended to express the idea of the pre-planning of the particulars of the act. Instead, it …

Why is a Law Enforcement Degree Becoming More and More Popular?

Are you interested to work as a detective, a police officer, or as a secret service agent perhaps? All of these practitioners have one thing in common. They are all not just fascinating but these are the careers that are related to law enforcement as well. As the technology advances and the world become even more complicated, individuals who are highly trained in enforcing the law are needed all over the world.

You can complete a bachelor's degree and put your education into practice immediately after graduating to any of the available law enforcement jobs. But there are also those who pursue a higher degree as well specifically in criminal justice. They push their masters and even their doctorate degree because they have wider opportunities and have more chances of advancing to a wide array of choices at the same time. Of course there is no need to mention that the higher your degree the bigger will be your salary as well.

A degree in law enforcement would allow you to work on different fields since it requires various skills too. Aside from the practitioners mentioned above, you can also become part of the judicial and the court system too. And if you can, you can land a job in rehabilitation centers and even by intended to take control of the prisoners in your local state.

Of course, not all law enforcement jobs are in the field. There are some who stays inside the offices and does business finances, accounting, and even programming too. You also do not have to be physically and mentally fit to do your job efficiently. It would also help if you know how to speak other languages ​​fluently as well. Remember that not every criminal speaks English very well so you have to create a way on how they would appreciate you and the system in United States. …

How Do Police Go About Getting a Search?

Whenever a crime occurs and evidence of that crime is believed to be within suspects private residence, law enforcement officials must obtain a search warrant before entering the property. Otherwise, the homeowner is protected against any unreasonable search and seizure by the Fourth Amendment of the US Constitution.

The search warrant must be specific about the time, place, and items that investigators are searching and must be obtained on the basis of probable cause, which is a hard reason approved by a judge. Only law enforcement officials have the ability to obtain a search warrant. Lawyers, private investigators, and private individuals can not.

The steps required to get a valid search warrant are as follows:

1. Preparing the affidavit : This affidavit describes the place to be searched, the items to be searched, and the reasons why the officer expects the items will be found at the location (probable cause).

2. Preparing the warrant : This step results in the official document being signed by a judge permitting law enforcement to enter the awards for the search to take place.

3. Getting the warrant signed : Law enforcement officials present the warrant and affidavit to the judge. If the judge believes there is probable cause for a search to take place, he signs the warrant to make it official.

Sometimes, getting a search warrant to find evidence of a crime can be difficult, and it is not always cut and dry like you see on the CSI TV shows. Probable cause can be one of the first issues to prevent a warrant from being official. The law enforcement official must have a strong reason for believing that the items he is searching are at the specified location. A hunch or a suspicion on his part simply is not enough.

Another problem that arises when making a warrant official is that the warrant must describe exactly what police are looking for. For this reason, police tend to add any and all items they believe may be present. If police happen to discover other evidence while they are conducting a legitimate search for the items listed in the warrant, then that evidence CAN be taken into their custody.

Finally, another difficulty that arises when getting a search warrant is that the area to be searched must be explicitly defined. For example, if a search warrant identifies a house, but does not specifically mention that the storage shack or garage can be searched, then those places not spelled out in the warrant can not be searched. If a warranty describes a garage to be searched but not the car parked inside, then the garage can be searched but not the car. …