Korea Culture: Ixs

The traditional culture of Korea is historically shared by North Korea and South Korea Nevertheless, the current political separation of the north and the south of the peninsula results in some regional variance in the Korean culture.The different aspects of Korean culture, society, and customs can be observed by taking an in-depth look into Life in Korea.

Oriental Astrology : Oriental astrology assigns twelve animals according to the year of ones birth. It is opposite to Western astrology which goes by the month of ones birth. Koreans have firm belief that ones animal determines ones personality and fate. Each year holds different things in store for each animal.

Korean Buddhism : Buddhism was originated in India over 2,600 years ago. This religion was introduced to Korea by the travelers around the fourth century A.D. Since that time, Buddhism has greatly influenced Korean society, culture, and the arts.

Traditional Alcohol : Korea has created unique alcohols using rice malt.

Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) : The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), the symbol of the ideological dispute between North and South Korea and poignant reminder of the Korean War (1950-53), winds 155 miles across the Korean Peninsula. An uneasy truce continues between the antagonists, but no peace treaty has ever been signed. Review the Korean War and the various parts of the DMZ.

Taekwondo : Taekwondo is one of the most systematic and scientific of Korean traditional martial arts. This modern sport has gained an international reputation and has been included among the official sports in the Olympic Games.

Rice Cakes (Deok) : Korean traditional cakes have great importance on many occasions of happiness and sorrow. These cakes have long been shared among neighbors and friends on these special occasions.The cake shape, content, and color vary from one region to another.

Samulnori basically means “four instruments” and refers to the four instruments (kwaengwari, jing, janggu, buk) played by the musicians. It has roots in Buddhist and folk music. However, the style has changed through the years and evolved in different ways. Samulnori is the name of the traditional musical group. This group has great contributions in reviving interest in Korean traditional arts.

Traditional Patterns and Symbols : Korean people traditionally adapted to and found meaning in the order of nature. They have created beautiful and diverse patterns in order to teach the hidden meanings of nature to their children. They also want their children to believe nature as law and order in their daily lives.These patterns can be found in every aspect of Korean life, from the Taegeuk in the national flag to the animal designs on chopsticks in restaurants. Many symbols are similar to the Chinese characters for luck, fortune, longevity, and fertility.

Traditional Tools and Utensils : Many Korean traditional tools and utensils look very similar to those found in other agricultural societies: stone mills for grinding grains into powder, weaving looms for making clothes, and measuring tools for dispensing agricultural products. Korea also has many tools and utensils made from bamboo and …

Want to Change the World? Become a Government Policy Maker in 3 Steps

From health care reform to global warming legislation, change that will affect us and future generations is happening now. If you feel passionate about these issues and want to get involved on a daily basis, why not make a career out of it by becoming a government policymaker? Here’s how:

Step 1: Earn a Bachelor’s Degree

Most government policy makers get their start working as sociologists or political scientists, so a sociology or political science degree is a good place to start. These degrees will teach you how to study people, society, and politics, as well as how these three systems interact. Don’t forget to take some statistics classes too; those skills will help you interpret and understand the monstrous amount of data that government policy makers are expected to analyze.

Step 2: Become a Sociologist or a Political Scientist

To become a policy maker, you’ll need to get your feet wet doing research as a sociologist or political scientist. You’ll study groups of people, observe how they interact, and analyze different political systems. The more data you can crunch, the better, as you’ll need those skills to become a government policy. In the start of your career, or even before you graduate college, look to intern or volunteer to make valuable contacts and get the experience you’ll need. For more information, visit this sociologist career profile.

Step 3: Become a Government Policy Maker

As a policy maker, you’ll use your analytical skills and your knowledge of people, society, and political systems to draft legislation that will make our country a better place for everyone. You may also study government systems of the past to try to learn what worked and what can be improved upon for the future. For more information, visit this government policy maker career profile.…

RACE Today- Can We Really Talk About It?

Race, race – everything’s ‘bout race?  This should be lyrics to some new song.  Everywhere we turn some media personality in America is reporting on race, interviewing authorities about race, and labeling, categorizing, and detailing the trials and tribulations of race and race relations in American today.  Yet, outside the media, is anyone even talking about race and how race fits into our ideals, morals, and culture today? 

Do you think it is time to open the race discussion?  Let’s put it ALL out on the table.  Race, race relations, closet racism, racial bias, racial prejudice, conflicts between races, history of race, what we think of race in our society today, race in the media, racial divides, emotions associated with race, stepping away from racism, tolerance, etc., etc., etc.  Let’s make race dinner topic conversation.  Let’s talk about race with our kids, husbands and wives, siblings, parents and grandparents, friends and neighbors.  Isn’t it time to stop skirting racial conflict discussions?  Is now the time to stop labeling and judging who is and who isn’t “racist.” Let’s talk about race openly and honestly.  Really, everyone in the spotlight is talking about race and race relations – right?  Are you ready to openly discuss race and your racial attitudes?

Maybe this is a good place to start.  Ask yourself and your friends the following questions that were raised and discussed recently in the media; 2009.

Is racism simply a “white people’s” issue?

Jimmy Carter’s name is a-buzz in the media and internet right now after his recent comment, “there is belief among many white people, not just in the south but around the country, that African-Americans are not qualified to lead this great country.”  (as reported by CNN, September 2009) 

(He did say he wanted to be very careful before he spoke on this subject.  Well, I wonder if he feels he was careful or whether he wishes he had not even brought it up.)

Has the term “racism” become simply political fodder?

Michael  Williams, an African American candidate for United State Senate and one time federal prosecutor fighting against the Ku Klux Klan wrote in his blog dated September, 2009,  …”false cries of racism short circuit our debate, but it makes legitimate concern about pockets of racism impossible to hear among the majority of Americans where it truly exists. Racism does still exist in America today – on both sides of the political spectrum. Now it will be that much harder to expose because the real cry (racial injustice) will be impossible to distinguish from the false one, much like the boy who cried, “wolf.”

Is it true that race is not as big nor pervasive an issue as those in the “race baiting business” will have us believe?

“Race is only a fringe element in our society today.”  (Interview with Mark Williams, Tea Party Express Organizer, CNN Video Broadcast, September 2009)  He further added that race is big business for some people while it is not even an “on …

Annotated Bibliography- Criminology

Cook, P. J. (2010). Property crime-yes; violence-no. Criminology & Public Policy, 9 (4). The author of this article is a professor at Duke University. He discusses the relationship between business cycle and crime against property and persons in the U.S. He references a study published within the issue. The author stresses that business cycles are complex experiments with many crime-related variables changing simultaneously. He identifies and defines plausible mechanisms relating the business cycle to crime, including criminal opportunities, drugs and alcohol. Cook believes that the business cycle affects robbery and theft crimes but does not affect personal crimes. According to this article, economic recessions come with extensive commentary in the media about how failing economic conditions can give an explanation for increases in crime rates. This discussion has been fueled by criminologists with 150 years of study on the subject. From a policy perspective, Cook points out that this interest might be justified by the use of apportioning credit or blame for observed crime fluctuations. The author finds a positive link between the business cycle and crime. This finding is useful in forecastingcrime rates and budgeting accordingly. Additionally, the macroeconomic study of the crime rate is a good test for a familiar hypothesis regarding criminal behavior, that crime substitute’s lawful opportunity. In this view, the rate of crime should increase with a reduction in economic opportunity that takes place during a recession, just as most criminals have low income and poor employment prospects.

Crotty, W. S. (1998). Presidential Assassinations. Society, 35 (2). The author of this article is an associate professor of political science at Northwestern University. He examines presidential assassinations in the United States. He defines assassinations of political consequence as the murder of an individual, whether of public prominence or not, in an effort to achieve political gain. The author points out that any assassin will deliberate on how to assault his victim–the time, the place, the weapon to be used and the nature of the encounter. Among the assassinations reviewed in this article is President John F. Kennedy’s murder, the killing of Reverend Martin Luther King, Medgar Evers and Lincoln Rockwell. The continuing assassinations in concert with a decade of seemingly endless violence brought serious concern to Americans. The author classifies the assassinations into five categories to serve to explain patterns of assassination in the United States compared to other nations. These categories are; Anomic assassination, Elite substitution, Tyrannicide, Terroristic assassination and Propaganda by deed. In Crotty’s comparison of the level of assassinations in the United States with other nations, he finds that the United States has an alarmingly high level of political assassinations. The author examines the commonalities that appear in the assassination attempts directed against US presidents or presidential candidates by randomly categorizing the assassinations into similarities common to the victims and those related to the assailants. In the author’s findings, the notion of rationality is never intended to express the idea of the pre-planning of the particulars of the act. Instead, it …


Equitable representation of women in the highest decision making body is an urgently required measure to empower the women politically. No nation could stand proud if it discriminates against any of its citizens, and no society could claim to be part of the modern civilized world unless it treated its women on par with men1.  In keeping with the point to provide gender equality in political arena the present government, the United Progressive Alliance (UPA),  has already promised in the Common Minimum Programme,  and has been trying to bring consensus among all political parties in favour of the women’s reservation Bill. The government has introduced women’s reservation bill, in the year 2008, in the Rajya Sabha amidst protests from opposition parties.  After this several attempts were made to introduce the bill in the Parliament but the government could not pass the bill, due to various political reasons.

The idea of reserving certain seats to women, it seems, was mooted by former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in the late 1980’s.  In 1988, the National Perspective Plan for Women suggested that a 30 per cent quota for women be introduced at all levels of elective bodies.  Women’s group insisted that reservation be restricted to the panchayat level to encourage grass-roots participation in politics.  The consensus around this demand resulted in the adoption of the 73rd and 74th amendments to the Indian Constitution in 1993.  In 1995, the question of quotas was raised again, but this time the focus was women’s representation in Parliament2.

In 1996 the United Front government led by Deva Gowda introduced the reservation bill in the Parliament but the bill was rejected in an uproar with, some male politicians arguing that women should stay at home where they really belonged.  The media had described the debate as the “battle of the sexes”.

Attempt to introduce the reservation bill in the Parliament reserving 33 per cent of seats for women have been scuppered by protests in the chamber of the lower house of the Parliament in the year 1998.  Male opponents of the bill, who said it would benefit only middle-class city women, continually disrupted proceedings, forcing several adjournments.  The then Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee described the opposition reaction to the bill as “disgracefull”3.

The present United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government led by Congress party is was keen to give 33 per cent reservation to women in Parliament4.  The Prime Minister convened the meeting of UPA constituents and its supporting parties, including the Left parties, on the proposed women’s reservation Bill.  The meeting did not produce consensus but several parties said they had agreed “in principle” with the idea of reserving one-third of the total number of seats for women in the state legislatures and also in Parliament5.  The reservation bill has been referred to the Parliament standing committee headed by senior Congress party leader Sudarshana Natchiappan.

Trend at the International level

The recent UNO report shows that Women hold just over 18 …

Obama and the 4 Key Trends in US Political-economy

For the first time in history, the Americans have elected a President who has never had a job. President-elect Obama has never worked in the private sector; never ran an organisation; never met a payroll; and never hired a single private sector employee. He was a city-state paid lawyer ‘organising’ his Chicago community to achieve his personal political ambitions. He is the ultimate insider and corrupt politician without a clue about policy, the economy, trade or foreign affairs. What he portends for the future direction of the US is not a positive.

The US is now on a very dangerous left-ward lurch – irregardless of the media’s rhetoric about how ‘centrist’ the new Black messiah will be. Obama and his friends, including most of the old Clinton administration which is now being hired into Obama’s government, are not centrist. It was the Republican Congress which dominated the politics of the 1990’s which kept budgets balanced, gave the US tax cuts, welfare reform and NAFTA and which made Clinton assume the role of an economic conservative. No such constraint exists today on an Obama administration. The Republicans have lost credibility, seats and are in disarray [how else can one explain Sarah Palin]. There is nothing to stop Obama from enacting his true beliefs and ones which he has openly espoused for 12 years in politics – large scale government ownership of production, social processes and the elimination of risk. It is the European model he has supported albeit in stages.

The US political-economy will only get worse after Obama’s coronation and this will be demonstrated over succeeding administrations. This means that whatever Obama will implement might only have future repercussions as opposed to an immediate impact. If Obama implements his big statist ideas not only will the US economy suffer further decline, the spending and program building developed in the next 4 years will be almost politically impossible to unravel. Government programs only grow, they never shrink.

We have seen this story repeated countless times in the past 100 years.

FDR’s failed domestic administration which prolonged the Great Depression and gutted US business, bequeathed to American taxpayers the socialist housing finance firms of Freddie and Fannie which were key players in the current housing finance meltdown; a bankrupt state managed social security system; and an inefficient socialised US health care system which has nothing whatsoever to do with free markets but which is badly in need of costly repair [US governments spend 60% of all health care dollars and firmly control the rest through legislation].

LBJ’s great socialist society program of the 1960s erected a huge welfare system which is now bankrupt with attendant and unforeseen social costs such as the destruction of Black families and massive illegal immigration. Welfare and ‘mandatory’ payments for social programs now constitute 80% of US federal government spending [which is now over $3 Trillion per year].

Bush and the current Congress and their desire to print and spend $3.5 Trillion, will likewise have enormous distortive …

Plastic Surgery in the Philippines

Dilemma in Cosmetic Plastic Surgery

This is one thing for sure that I, as a Plastic Surgeon could share to anybody very much interested in enhancing their physical appearance.

Today, that the public have an increased interest in cosmetic surgery or physical enhancement either medical or surgical and with the market population increasing day by day. A lot of physicians, even non plastic surgeons and worse of all non doctors would like to get involve in cosmetic business. They would introduce them self as a cosmetic consultant or cosmetic surgeon even without undergoing formal training in Plastic Surgery.

Therefore it would be best for any prospective clients to carefully scrutinize the credentials or qualification of the person you seek consult with, in order to be assured of the quality of your surgeon. However, there are others that would organize and form their own group of surgeons to form a cosmetic organization to boost their qualifications and credentials.

The sole society or organization in the Philippines that is recognized locally by the Philippine College of Surgeons and internationally by the American College of Surgeon, American Society of Plastic Surgeon and ASEAN Congress of Plastic Surgeon to monitor and regulate the practice of cosmetic surgery and training of future plastic surgeons is the Philippine Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons – PAPRAS. This prestigious assembly of Plastic Surgeons demand from its members certain qualifications and standards in term of academic and training, to assure the public of a safe and quality surgeons. So it is prudent if you would inquire from your surgeon, his affiliation to the society (PAPRAS).  It goes with out saying that PAPRAS membership or affiliation would be the seal of excellence in the practice of cosmetic surgery in the Philippines.

To clarify things out and to make the public aware, Cosmetic Surgery should be performed by a Plastic surgeon with adequate and formal training in cosmetic/aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Plastic surgeons are both cosmetic and reconstructive surgeon, and Reconstructive surgery is a prerequisite for all plastic surgeon before they finish their training and be certified member of the society (PAPRAS). It would take 6 to 8 years of formal training and 2 qualifying national specialty exams (Given by the Philippine Boards of Plastic) after medical school before a doctor could claim himself a Plastic Surgeon. Training is very essential, because it is through these years of training that plastic surgeon is able to gain knowledge to do cosmetic procedure, differentiate high-quality result from dreadful outcome, and learn to identify, prevent and treat complications.

However there are alot of doctors and even non physician that don’t want to take the longer road to be a plastic surgeon, since they think that they could deceive the unsuspecting client. Usually they call themselves cosmetic surgeon but such term does not exist, they usually undergo a 6 to12 months of observership locally or from other country without hands-on training, then afterwards they offer and perform cosmetic surgical procedures …

Politics and Citizens' Responsibilities

The political responsibility and the role of citizens are cardinal points in the social structure of our society. The other factors that govern the awakening in masses are moral, spiritual, cultural and humanitarian values. These values ​​are directly proportional to our domestic and educational institutional environments. These fundamental institutions play a role model in character building of an individual. The character which builds around this role model lays a strong foundation of a dynamic society. The society, in turns, will become a beacon of guidance to its people. These institutions get to boost when individuals and groups collectively contribute to the humanitarian values. The spiritual and cultural values ​​further enhance the stature of an individual.

Now, it is important to understand the Politics and its values. The Politics as described by Aristotle is, "Every state is a community of some kind, and every community is established with a view to some good; for mankind always act in order to obtain that which they think good. But, if all communities aim At some good, the state or political community, which is the highest of all, and which reflects all the rest, aims at good in a greater degree than any other, and at the highest good ".

Every member of society has fundamental responsibility to act in a matured manner to implement the core values ​​of Politics. The citizens of any country individually and collectively have to take active part in understanding politics and its values. The politics does not mean involving mudslinging and degenerating into human values. On the contrary, it is the justice and well being of a common man. They play a constructive role in shaping the policies of the state. Here, they become the watch dog of the organization. It is a fact that violent opposition of any organization is essential in achieving profitable results.

The above situations are idealistic and appear in an abstract form rather, in reality. However, this is the crucial joke, wherein the role of masses comes into play. The leaders who are the driving force of a nation are the building block of a healthy society. People follow their leaders as heroes, based on their perception on hero worship. It is, therefore, essential and necessary to comprehend the core concept of values ​​and implement accordingly.

Every home has its responsibility to teach their tiny tos the principles of truth, honesty and sincerity. These facts will definitely invigorate their young mind and produce dynamic leaders. It ever builds a strong and powerful nation with sound democratic values. Here, it evolves a political base and mass orientation. …

Institutional Theory and Definitions About Natural Resources

Why institutions matter to achieving economic and social development is certainly not a question that has arisen only in the context of mineral-rich countries. Social scientists have long pointed to institutions as well as institutional change to explain economic and social transformations. This emphasis has been revived by recent institutional theorists with backgrounds in disciplines as diverse as sociology, comparative history, political science and economics.

Diversity in conceptual thinking on the relationship between institutions and economic and social outcomes is reflected in the fact that there is not just one definition of what institutions actually are. Institutions are the rules of the game in a society or… are the humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction. More recent theoretical developments have defined institutions at an even more abstract level.For example consider them to represent a system of social factors that conjointly generate a regularity of behavior.

Stocktaking of recent theoretical contributions confirms that it is at the higher order levels where the study of institutions still requires more attention. This includes questions such as how institutions are embedded in societies, how power relations are to be interpreted and how the bureaucratic functions of government are to be understood? The related governance debate emphasizes the rules of the political game and a country capacity to implement and enforce public policies and to improve public sector coordination with the private sector.

Theoretical work has linked the importance of institutions for development to a range of different micro-economic functions, such as overcoming collective action problems, eliminating uncertainty in the context of bounded rationality and reducing transaction costs. It has been argued that if it was not for the existence of institutions, the problems underlying these functions would undermine the pursuit of productive economic activities. For example, institutions can take a coordinating function by encouraging productive behavior, including learning and innovations, or they can prevent actions that would otherwise undermine social cohesion and evoke distributional conflicts.

Policy-practitioners in turn have often referred to good institutions as particular types of organizations or policies, for example a particular type of trade regime, independent central banks, semi-autonomous agencies that provide a particular type of public services or standardized tools for public financial management. Policy recommendations for the mining sector in the early 1990s emphasized the creation of five institutions with specific roles, including a ministry of mines, a department of mines, a geological survey, a mineral promotion agency and an environmental office.

While the earlier theoretical literature underlined formal institutions, such as legal systems, property rights and contracts, the more recent conceptual work has stressed the importance of informal institutions and how they relate to formal institutions.Reforms re-assigning property rights have not considered that property rights are social constructs and so in order to be stable and secure they require legitimacy.Thus, the theoretical policy arguments would appear to shift away from pointing to the existence of a particular laws or policies on paper and move towards emphasizing the importance of the joint perception of economic, political and …

The Digital Divide

The Digital Divide:

Electronic Government or E-Government is the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) with the intention or purpose of upgrading and presenting government services to citizens, the public sector, private segment and the non-profit organizations globally. Digital divide is the terminology used to refer to the gap separating the social classes as concerns their knowledge and accessibility to modern technology especially as regards the computers and information technologies the internet inclusive. The digital divide draws a separation line between the wealthy and the poor, developed nations and developing nations and between the blacks and the whites.

The E-Government and the digital divide are essentially interrelated. With the increasing populations and the consequent need for government services by the public, information technology (IT) is an essential tool used to distribute and present services to people with ease, thereby boosting productivity and efficiency. However, the information technology in the government won’t have any significance if those who are intended to benefit from it have limited or no access to the service or are not able to utilize the service.

The first consideration for the implementation of E-Government is making all public offices computerized so as to enable them build a capacity for efficient service delivery and yield better governance catalyzed by technology. The second aspect to consider is the availability of citizen centric services by using the digital media. This may include establishing interactive government portals.

Currently, the nations with admirable e-governance schemes include New Zealand, Singapore and Canada. E-Government in the United States was particularly facilitated by the 1998 Government Paperwork Elimination Act as well as by President Clinton’s Memorandum on E-Government on December 17, 1999. The memorandum required that the most commonly used 500 forms by the citizens be made available online by December 2000. The memorandum further instructed agencies to formulate a secure E-Government infrastructure.

The world wide digital divide is not diminishing as quickly in spite of the complacency and misconceptions as inferred by researchers Fink, Kenny, Samuelson and Compaine. These researchers feel that the global digital divide is ending while other argues that the digital divide never existed. There are also those who believe that there is less importance to intervene on the matter, just as it is in the gap between the poor and the rich. Such perceptions are deceptive and influential to the interventionist strategy attitude. This indicates that less consideration is given to the digital divide making nations and their citizens miss the advantages of information and communication technology.

According to the A Nation Online: How Americas Are Expanding Their Use of the Internet (NTIA, 2002) article, the optimistic digital divide researchers in America are portrayed to argue that persons from poor backgrounds were making use of the Internet than those from wealthy families between 1998 and 2001. The article shows that Internet and computer literacy and application are growing much faster among the poor and marginal groups and the digital divide is narrowing rapidly. The article further argues that the …