What is Physical Anthropology?

Anthropology is one of the most widely misunderstood scientific disciplines. This may be expected, since the word anthropology literally means "the study of man." That is quite an ambitious discipline! Because of this, anthropology often intersects and is informed by a wide variety of disciplines, such as: history, psychology, sociology, literature, religion, biology, political science, and philosophy.

Modern anthropology is divided into four major branches. These are: Cultural Anthropology, Archeology, Linguistics, and Physical Anthropology. This article will take a closer look at physical anthropology.

Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, is the study of the physical development of the human body and the human species (especially compared with other primates). Physical anthropologists also try to trace the evolution of humans and other primates. Physical anthropologists, above all things, love bones! Bones are the most common form of fossil evidence, and are a great way for anthropologists to trace the development of our species over time.

Physical anthropologists are usually pretty good at putting together a detailed profile of someone based only on a small bone fragment. By only examining a small part of a bone, they can often determine whether the person was male or female, what race they belonged to, their approximate height and weight, and their age. Because of this skill, physical anthropologists are often consulted when a police force is trying to resolve a crime, and many pursue practitioners in CSI work.

Because of its extremely technical nature about the human body, an undergraduate degree in physical anthropology is often an excellent preparatory course of study for admittance into medical school, although it is not the most common route.

Physical Anthropology can be grouped into several sub-branches. Some of these include:


This is the study of human DNA, how each person's DNA differs from another's, and how human DNA differs from related species.


This is the study of other primates. By studying apes and monkeys, anthropologists hope to gain more insight into human nature.

Behavioral Ecology:

This usually involves the study of modern hunter-gatherer groups. Cultural anthropologists are often interested in learning about the cultural practices of hunter-gatherers, but when physical anthropologists study them, they usually take more detailed measurements on things like: calories consumed per day, calories expended, time spent hunting / foraging, age at reproduction , Death and birth rates, etc. By collecting a large amount of data across many hunter-gatherer groups, anthropologists hope to put together a picture of the characteristics of a "natural" human.

There are many other sub-branches as well. Neuro-anthropologists study the human brain, and paleopathologists study diseases in ancient skeletons. Lately, physical anthropologists have been branching into the field of nutrition to share their ideas about the proper human diet based on their study of hunter-gatherers.

Hopefully this article taught you a little about the fascinating field of physical anthropology. Although the field is unknown to many people, physical anthropologists are diligently working to try to solve some of the most central problems of the human condition. …

Public School Law & Educational Laws and Policies, Employment Law, Contracts, Due Process, Dr. W.A. Kritsonis

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Public School Law & Educational Laws and Policies



          When we speak of employment, we find that the public school system is the largest employer in the state of Texas. The full scope of the employment relationship examines the constitutional concept of due process of law, the different employment arrangements that are available to public schools in Texas, the hiring and firing process, and the legal issues that arise in that context (Walsh, Kemerer, and Maniotis, 2005).

          For the purpose of this report, we will present ten cases as they relate to the different employment arrangements found in public education. The findings are intended to be informative and beneficial in terms of “at-will employees”, “Non-Chapter 21 Contracts”, “probationary contracts”, “term contracts”, “continuing contracts”, and “third-party independent contractor.” 

Case One

United States Court of Appeals,

Fifth Circuit.

Emilio MONTEZ, et al., Plaintiffs-Appellants,



No. 87 – 5501



Plaintiffs-Appellants: Emilio Montez, et. al



In 1979 Montez was hired to teach in the Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps program. Montez has never been certified as a teacher by the responsible authorities of the State of Texas. His initial employment was validated on October 15, 1979 when the Texas Education Agency issued him an Emergency Teaching Permit. That permit expired on August 31, 1980 and was never reissued. Montez continued to work until September 1985 when he was notified of the anticipated termination of his employment. After two hearings before the school district authorities, Montez was discharged at the end of the 1985-86 school year.


Emilio Montez appeals a summary judgment rejecting his claims under the Fifth and Fourteenth amendments and 42 U.S.C. series 1983. He alleges wrongful termination by the SAN ANTONIO ISD of his employment as an instructor in the JROTC program. The district court found no genuine issue of material fact and concluded that Montez had not been denied due process as relates to a claimed property interest.

The United States District Court for the Western District of Texas, at San Antonio, H. F. Garcia, J., granted summary judgment against instructor. Instructor appealed.


In order to establish due process deprivation of property interest under the Fourteenth Amendment, plaintiff must establish that he had “legitimate claim of entitlement” to that interest. Montez who was hired to teach in the JROTC program was employed under “continuing contracts” after his emergency teaching permit expired.

When he was subsequently discharged by the school district, it was determined that he was not “teacher”, for purposes of Texas “tenure law” granting “teachers” legitimate claim of entitlement to, and protection under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The instructor never held required permanent teaching certificate, and any contract purporting to give instructor more than that allowed by Texas law was beyond the power of the school district and could not bestow property interest on instructor.

Montez contends that, even if his contracts were …

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Cost Effective Law Enforcement Aerial Patrol

While many of our law enforcement officers will make a major stand in regards to flying helicopters and the versatility of the helicopter, for many law enforcement agencies there are far more cost effective options available to perform many of the same mission roles as a helicopter.

Starting with the helicopter it does offer vertical takeoff and decent as well as hover capability. Hover capability is vital for performing officer insertion or extraction in confined areas where landing is not normally practical. Hover capability is also critical for life rescue work.

We now enter into an area that may turn a few heads. How often and how needed are these capabilities for your particular organization? Larger cities or metropolitan areas may in fact need all of the capabilities of a helicopter and may have the need even for a large helicopter for proper tactical deployment of personnel and or equipment. Now if an analytical approach to bang for the buck is applied to a majority of law enforcement missions, the actual number of times per year that these capabilities were utilized are most likely very low. For many cities not willing or by the private service of EMS helicopter operators, or the services of the Coast Guard, many EMS missions are not even covered by law enforcement agencies.

Large cities and metro departments can even benefit from a slightly mixed fleet of affordable aircraft and more expensive helicopters. With smaller cheaper aircraft to perform normal patrols and surveillance with the more mission – enhanced aircraft providing the special mission services it can offer.

Many law enforcement agencies not only in the United States but also across the world have made some very significant purchases in regards to new helicopters in the past few years. Aircraft such as the Eurocopter B2 and B3’s as well as Bell 206 L4 and 407 helicopters. Agencies have been replacing older aircraft with high component and or high airframe times with newer aircraft with more performance and the ability to safely carry the many mission support tools needed for airborne law enforcement.

Agencies have been able to find ways to procure new aircraft but very often the maintenance and repair area after the initial purchase is overlooked. Right along with this oversight is the increased operational costs and possible increase in insurance costs associated with the new purchase. A typical scenario seen across the industry is when an aircraft enters a major inspection is that the money needed to repair or replace the inspection items is often not available or was not budgeted for in the maintenance operating budget. This can be an administrative short-sight, an agency with a fixed maintenance budget, inaccurate information on DOC’s (Direct Operating Costs) as the area in which you operate may have more atmospheric contaminates to cause corrosion that were not taken into account at the time of purchase. Another possibility can be the hours that were actually flown exceeded the planned hours for the budget, this brings those …

RACE Today- Can We Really Talk About It?

Race, race – everything’s ‘bout race?  This should be lyrics to some new song.  Everywhere we turn some media personality in America is reporting on race, interviewing authorities about race, and labeling, categorizing, and detailing the trials and tribulations of race and race relations in American today.  Yet, outside the media, is anyone even talking about race and how race fits into our ideals, morals, and culture today? 

Do you think it is time to open the race discussion?  Let’s put it ALL out on the table.  Race, race relations, closet racism, racial bias, racial prejudice, conflicts between races, history of race, what we think of race in our society today, race in the media, racial divides, emotions associated with race, stepping away from racism, tolerance, etc., etc., etc.  Let’s make race dinner topic conversation.  Let’s talk about race with our kids, husbands and wives, siblings, parents and grandparents, friends and neighbors.  Isn’t it time to stop skirting racial conflict discussions?  Is now the time to stop labeling and judging who is and who isn’t “racist.” Let’s talk about race openly and honestly.  Really, everyone in the spotlight is talking about race and race relations – right?  Are you ready to openly discuss race and your racial attitudes?

Maybe this is a good place to start.  Ask yourself and your friends the following questions that were raised and discussed recently in the media; 2009.

Is racism simply a “white people’s” issue?

Jimmy Carter’s name is a-buzz in the media and internet right now after his recent comment, “there is belief among many white people, not just in the south but around the country, that African-Americans are not qualified to lead this great country.”  (as reported by CNN, September 2009) 

(He did say he wanted to be very careful before he spoke on this subject.  Well, I wonder if he feels he was careful or whether he wishes he had not even brought it up.)

Has the term “racism” become simply political fodder?

Michael  Williams, an African American candidate for United State Senate and one time federal prosecutor fighting against the Ku Klux Klan wrote in his blog dated September, 2009,  …”false cries of racism short circuit our debate, but it makes legitimate concern about pockets of racism impossible to hear among the majority of Americans where it truly exists. Racism does still exist in America today – on both sides of the political spectrum. Now it will be that much harder to expose because the real cry (racial injustice) will be impossible to distinguish from the false one, much like the boy who cried, “wolf.”

Is it true that race is not as big nor pervasive an issue as those in the “race baiting business” will have us believe?

“Race is only a fringe element in our society today.”  (Interview with Mark Williams, Tea Party Express Organizer, CNN Video Broadcast, September 2009)  He further added that race is big business for some people while it is not even an “on …

Finding the Best Lawn Aerator

How to know which Lawn Aerator is the best deal?

Lawn aerators come in many different sizes and shapes. Price on lawn aerators range from $10 to $6000. What aerators are the best for their cost? When do you know if it is better to buy vs rent an aeration machine? Below we have assessed the benefits of several different types of aerators and their effectiveness.

Lawn Aerator Shoes- (Price $10-$40) Effectiveness (2 stars out of 5) Durability (1 of 5) Price Cost (4 of 5) Ease of use (4 of 5)

We give lawn Aerator shoes a 2.5 star rating overall. It is a great idea but the cheaper lawn aeration shoe models break easily. The shoes that actually work, need to be used quite regularly because the holes are so small they only last for about two weeks.

Liquid Lawn Aerator- ($25-50) Effectiveness (2.5 stars out of 5) Durability (2 of 5) Price Cost (3 of 5) Ease of use (4 of 5)

Overall Liquid Lawn Aeration has a 3 star rating. On a per application basis it is actually quite expensive. It can break up hard soils but the catch is that it works best when used in conjunction with mechanical lawn aeration.It should be applied in the fall or in the spring before the lawn gets to hard to aerate.

Hand Aerator- ($10-50) Effectiveness (2 stars out of 5) Durability (3 of 5) Price Cost (4 of 5) Ease of use (3 of 5)

Hand Aerators works great on small yards and parking strips. It is a very economical way to go if your lawn is small than 500 sq feet. But it is difficult to use once your lawn gets hard and it is time consuming. We suggest and aerator with only two coring spikes. We have had the best luck using this model. You can also use it on small patches of your lawn that get extra hard or when reseeding small areas.

Machine Core Aerator- ($40-110) Effectiveness (5 stars out of 5) Durability (4 of 5) Price Cost (2 of 5) Ease of use (2 of 5)

Using a mechanical core aerator on your lawn is the quickest way to see visible results. The down side is that you need to rent it and it is more expensive than aeration shoes or a hand aerator. These machine are very heavy they can do a great job. Many people can also aerate their lawn 2 or 3 times for better penetration and better results. Rental rates range from $40 to $110. Surprisingly, you can often find a local service willing to do it for the same price. The advantage of renting is you can do your neighbor’s lawn at the same time and split the cost.

Tow behind Lawn aerators are rated nearly identical to the mechanical ones. If you already own a riding mower you can get a lawn aerator attachment for 200-300 dollar. It works great on large lawns , but it …

Annotated Bibliography- Criminology

Cook, P. J. (2010). Property crime-yes; violence-no. Criminology & Public Policy, 9 (4). The author of this article is a professor at Duke University. He discusses the relationship between business cycle and crime against property and persons in the U.S. He references a study published within the issue. The author stresses that business cycles are complex experiments with many crime-related variables changing simultaneously. He identifies and defines plausible mechanisms relating the business cycle to crime, including criminal opportunities, drugs and alcohol. Cook believes that the business cycle affects robbery and theft crimes but does not affect personal crimes. According to this article, economic recessions come with extensive commentary in the media about how failing economic conditions can give an explanation for increases in crime rates. This discussion has been fueled by criminologists with 150 years of study on the subject. From a policy perspective, Cook points out that this interest might be justified by the use of apportioning credit or blame for observed crime fluctuations. The author finds a positive link between the business cycle and crime. This finding is useful in forecastingcrime rates and budgeting accordingly. Additionally, the macroeconomic study of the crime rate is a good test for a familiar hypothesis regarding criminal behavior, that crime substitute’s lawful opportunity. In this view, the rate of crime should increase with a reduction in economic opportunity that takes place during a recession, just as most criminals have low income and poor employment prospects.

Crotty, W. S. (1998). Presidential Assassinations. Society, 35 (2). The author of this article is an associate professor of political science at Northwestern University. He examines presidential assassinations in the United States. He defines assassinations of political consequence as the murder of an individual, whether of public prominence or not, in an effort to achieve political gain. The author points out that any assassin will deliberate on how to assault his victim–the time, the place, the weapon to be used and the nature of the encounter. Among the assassinations reviewed in this article is President John F. Kennedy’s murder, the killing of Reverend Martin Luther King, Medgar Evers and Lincoln Rockwell. The continuing assassinations in concert with a decade of seemingly endless violence brought serious concern to Americans. The author classifies the assassinations into five categories to serve to explain patterns of assassination in the United States compared to other nations. These categories are; Anomic assassination, Elite substitution, Tyrannicide, Terroristic assassination and Propaganda by deed. In Crotty’s comparison of the level of assassinations in the United States with other nations, he finds that the United States has an alarmingly high level of political assassinations. The author examines the commonalities that appear in the assassination attempts directed against US presidents or presidential candidates by randomly categorizing the assassinations into similarities common to the victims and those related to the assailants. In the author’s findings, the notion of rationality is never intended to express the idea of the pre-planning of the particulars of the act. Instead, it …

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Why Make Use Of Online Yard Sign Companies

A considerable number of companies use signage businesses as a cost-effective method of publicizing their business. There have been many pushes to help local companies get much more from their marketing budget. Today, companies want to be capable to assess their results to obtain a larger ROI. Nonetheless, there are discrepancies between sign companies particularly with respect to how much consumer support you obtain. Typically with an online sign company, you’re likely to get significantly less feedback on your signs than if you work with a regular sign business. Nevertheless, the trade off is that the cost you pay for your signs will be substantially less too. You need to design signs for your business according to the type of organization you operate. Your signage is one of the 1st things your visitors see when they go to your shop so it needs to have a lasting, memorable impression.

What Kind Of Signage Is Offered?

The best sign companies can make a wide variety of signage items. These items range from vinyl banners and yard signs to real estate and political signs. Advertising via signage is an low-cost advertising method that more and more organizations are coming to realize. The finest sign companies will also allow you to produce custom made signage and not need to order pre-made signs. They will also allow you to add your logo to print on your signs. When designing signs, it’s crucial to think about how much use you’ll get out of them. If you are capable to reuse your signs, your marketing expenditures continue to drop. If you are purchasing a sign product you are not really familiar with, the good sign companies will give you recommendations on how to care for the signs. This just lengthens the life of the signs providing you more value. Signage doesn’t have to be big to have a large impact either. Many sign companies are also transitioning into the business cards printing segment, a spin-off of what they’re as of now advertising.

How To Pick A Signage Company

If you do not possess a sign company that you are used to using, you are able to discover numerous on the web to choose from. 1st you’ll have to decide whether you would like to use an online sign company and save funds or use a local sign company. Both choices have their advantages and disadvantages. Some online sign businesses have poor service which they can get away with since they do not have the exact same face-to-face interaction that nearby sign businesses experience. The best sign businesses are always staying current on news in the signage industry and acting appropriately to bring in new technology which will put them ahead of the competition. When you are choosing your sign company, we propose that you do some research and check with a few businesses to make certain you are getting the finest quality for the price you would like to pay. 1 cool thing about using an …

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