A Career As A Government Spokesperson

Qualifications And Other Requirements

The minimum qualification required to be a government spokesperson is to have a bachelor's degree either in political science, business administration or public administration. The spokesperson could also posses a college or university degree in communication, journalism or English. It is a bonus if the candidate has experience as a spokesperson in print, radio and camera interviews. One may also be required to be fluent in another foreign language and be good at public relations. The person needs to possess good communication skills. Candidates have to go through a background security investigation, residential status investigation and a drug screening.

The candidates should have at least ten years of experience in communication, public relations, member services and legislation, which should include five years of experience in management and supervision. They should be able to manage multi-million dollar budgets as well.


The executive director of a particular government has the right to appoint the government spokesperson. In some countries, the regional minister is generally the government spokesperson and is the one who represents the government. In the United States, this is usually the Press Secretary.

Office Of The Spokesperson

A government spokesperson works in the communications department of a government office. Well, to put it the right way, the government spokesperson is the head of the communication department. It is also known as the "Government Spokesperson's Office" by law. This office is composed of an administrative unit. This administrative unit supports them and they have to report to him / her. The employees in the communication department assist the spokesperson with their daily work.


The spokesperson has to manage and lead various activities such as media relations, public affairs, member services, public involvement, community involvement, sub-regional relations and legislation. They have to carry out a number of functions in their daily work, the most important of them being "communication".

A spokesperson has to communicate to people the work done (ie political and institutional) by the government. The task of assisting and supporting the members of the government and the government itself is assigned to the spokesperson. They have to brief the president about the daily events in the state and the rest of the country. The government spokesperson has organized press meetings and talk to the press. The interview may be either given on the local, national or international level. Before giving a press interview the government spokes person has to discuss the report with the director and obtain their approval to release it.

The salary could be anywhere between $ 50,000 to $ 250,000. This salary is exclusive of bonus and other benefits. …

Korea Culture: Ixs

The traditional culture of Korea is historically shared by North Korea and South Korea Nevertheless, the current political separation of the north and the south of the peninsula results in some regional variance in the Korean culture.The different aspects of Korean culture, society, and customs can be observed by taking an in-depth look into Life in Korea.

Oriental Astrology : Oriental astrology assigns twelve animals according to the year of ones birth. It is opposite to Western astrology which goes by the month of ones birth. Koreans have firm belief that ones animal determines ones personality and fate. Each year holds different things in store for each animal.

Korean Buddhism : Buddhism was originated in India over 2,600 years ago. This religion was introduced to Korea by the travelers around the fourth century A.D. Since that time, Buddhism has greatly influenced Korean society, culture, and the arts.

Traditional Alcohol : Korea has created unique alcohols using rice malt.

Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) : The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), the symbol of the ideological dispute between North and South Korea and poignant reminder of the Korean War (1950-53), winds 155 miles across the Korean Peninsula. An uneasy truce continues between the antagonists, but no peace treaty has ever been signed. Review the Korean War and the various parts of the DMZ.

Taekwondo : Taekwondo is one of the most systematic and scientific of Korean traditional martial arts. This modern sport has gained an international reputation and has been included among the official sports in the Olympic Games.

Rice Cakes (Deok) : Korean traditional cakes have great importance on many occasions of happiness and sorrow. These cakes have long been shared among neighbors and friends on these special occasions.The cake shape, content, and color vary from one region to another.

Samulnori basically means “four instruments” and refers to the four instruments (kwaengwari, jing, janggu, buk) played by the musicians. It has roots in Buddhist and folk music. However, the style has changed through the years and evolved in different ways. Samulnori is the name of the traditional musical group. This group has great contributions in reviving interest in Korean traditional arts.

Traditional Patterns and Symbols : Korean people traditionally adapted to and found meaning in the order of nature. They have created beautiful and diverse patterns in order to teach the hidden meanings of nature to their children. They also want their children to believe nature as law and order in their daily lives.These patterns can be found in every aspect of Korean life, from the Taegeuk in the national flag to the animal designs on chopsticks in restaurants. Many symbols are similar to the Chinese characters for luck, fortune, longevity, and fertility.

Traditional Tools and Utensils : Many Korean traditional tools and utensils look very similar to those found in other agricultural societies: stone mills for grinding grains into powder, weaving looms for making clothes, and measuring tools for dispensing agricultural products. Korea also has many tools and utensils made from bamboo and …

What Constitutes Illegal Search and Seizure?

The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects citizens from illegal search and seizure of property by limiting the power of police to conduct searches of private property and seizure of objects. The Fourth Amendment specifically protects citizens against unreasonable search and seizure. Therefore, there are circumstances where police may search your person, home, car, or other property if they can demonstrable probable cause for needing to do so.

Search warrants and probable cause

Law enforcement officials may petition a member of the judicial department for a search warrant in cases where they believe they have probable cause to search or seize private property. The warrant must include precise reasons for probable cause and details on the specific place and items that are to be searched. For instance, if a warrant states that police may only search your basement and they search another area of ​​the home as well, anything located from elsewhere in the home may be considered evidence obtained illegally.

Use of evidence in court

Evidence that is obtained illegally is not admissible in court. Although illegally identified evidence can not be the direct cause of a conviction, an illegal search does not mean the case will be automatically dismissed. The case may still proceed if there is enough other evidence against the defender.

In some cases, evidence located illegally can still be considered in sending and may be admissible in civil or deportation cases. Furthermore, evidence that results from an illegal search may not be used to discover other evidence. This is known as the "fruit of the poisonous tree" doctrine.


The Fourth Amendment is applicable in situations where there is a legitimate expectation of privacy. Therefore, if you are driving with illegal drugs in plain view in your car and police pull you over and seize them, you would not be protected by the Fourth Amendment because they were clearly in public view.

It is also important to note that the Fourth Amendment applies only to government officials, such as police officers. It does not protect you against searches by private, non-governmental security officers, including mall or supermarket security guards. If a non-governmental security officer seizes property from you and turns it over to the police, this may be admissible in court since the Fourth Amendment does not block private security guards from seizing your property.

Criminal defense lawyers

If you have had your property searched or designated as part of a criminal investigation, it is important that you have an attorney looking out for your rights. Experienced criminal defense attorneys have the necessary expertise and understanding of the complexities of search and seizure laws to ensure that any property located without proper protocol will not be used against you in court.

Many lawyers have seen many cases where evidence is dismissed because law enforcement has violated the constitutional rights of defenders. However, it is very rare for defenders who do not have legal counsel to have evidence withdrawn for these reasons-the legal processes …

Want to Change the World? Become a Government Policy Maker in 3 Steps

From health care reform to global warming legislation, change that will affect us and future generations is happening now. If you feel passionate about these issues and want to get involved on a daily basis, why not make a career out of it by becoming a government policymaker? Here’s how:

Step 1: Earn a Bachelor’s Degree

Most government policy makers get their start working as sociologists or political scientists, so a sociology or political science degree is a good place to start. These degrees will teach you how to study people, society, and politics, as well as how these three systems interact. Don’t forget to take some statistics classes too; those skills will help you interpret and understand the monstrous amount of data that government policy makers are expected to analyze.

Step 2: Become a Sociologist or a Political Scientist

To become a policy maker, you’ll need to get your feet wet doing research as a sociologist or political scientist. You’ll study groups of people, observe how they interact, and analyze different political systems. The more data you can crunch, the better, as you’ll need those skills to become a government policy. In the start of your career, or even before you graduate college, look to intern or volunteer to make valuable contacts and get the experience you’ll need. For more information, visit this sociologist career profile.

Step 3: Become a Government Policy Maker

As a policy maker, you’ll use your analytical skills and your knowledge of people, society, and political systems to draft legislation that will make our country a better place for everyone. You may also study government systems of the past to try to learn what worked and what can be improved upon for the future. For more information, visit this government policy maker career profile.…

Search And Seizure Law

If you are accused of criminal charges or have been dropped over in your vehicle for some reason or another, the police may want to search your property. Understanding your rights is vital to ensuring that you do not allow police officers to overstep their legal boundaries.

The Protection of the Fourth Amendment

The Fourth Amendment of the US Constitution ensures every individual the right to be protected from unwarranted search and seizures, allowing individuals to raise their right to privacy. The Fourth Amendment also states that a warrant must be issued in order to allow law enforcement officials to search your home or property. For a warrant to be issued, probable cause must be presented and the warrant must contain the exact location to be searched, as well as the property that is approved to be sorted.

Police Misconduct

While law enforcement officials are granted power to protect the rights of the people, they often override the legal boundaries of their job. This often occurs during traffic stops and drug crime allegations. In some alarming recent reports, police officers have been seizing property and cash without appropriate warrants. If you are pushed over, know that it is your right to refuse to have your property searched. While the police may make you believe that they have the right to investigate your property whenever they please, they must prove probable due to want to look through the vehicle. Police misconduct is much more common than you think. If you believe that your vehicle was illegally searched, contact an attorney immediately to discuss the details of your case.

Without a warrant, the owner of the home or property must consented to a search before the police officer can begin one. Although this seems fairly simple, law enforcement officials have many tactics that use to try trick individuals into giving them consent to search the area or property. Do not forget, it is your legal right to refuse an investigation of your home or property.

An Attorney Can Help

Speaking with a skilled criminal defense attorney is the best way to determine whether your rights were violated during the search and seizure of your home or property. Contact a criminal defense attorney to discuss the details of your case. A licensed lawyer will carefully investigate all of the facts surrounding your case and work to unaware any misconduct on the part of the police. Understanding your rights is vital in protecting them. Allow a knowledgeable criminal defense attorney to help you better understand your legal rights. …

Review Of Amistad: A Novel By David Pesci

This great book by David Pesci remains an essential read for the understanding of the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

The story begins with Singbe, a Mende slave, waking up to the frozen touch of a child’s corpse. From the very first words in the book, the reader’s nightmare begins as Singbe’s ordeal and the story of slavery is narrated with such chilling clarity and skill.

The Amistad (which means friendship), a Spanish slave-ship, makes its way across the Atlantic destined for the coast of Cuba with its human cargo. The snatching of slaves from Africa, though outlawed by the British and the Americans in 1809, continued for many years since the Spanish and Portuguese governments were not bound by these laws.

Ferrying Singbe and his group must have been a routine voyage for Captain Ramon Ferrer and his men. After all he and his crew had been running slaves for more than twenty years. But against wretched odds, Singbe and his men took over the control of the Amistad. The cook and captain were killed in the skirmish. But the slaves had no intention slaughtering the entire crew in retribution. All they wanted was to go home.

Since they knew nothing about seamanship they had to rely on one of the sailors, Montez, to steer the ship back to Africa. But through guile, Montez manoeuvres the wheels the other way and the ship ended up along the coast of America, setting off a political tempest of Shakespearean proportions.

The book therefore is mainly about the tribulations of the captured slaves as the American justice system decided on their fate. Interestingly it is only the Africans who had to face the courts to establish their innocence, and not their Spanish captors. They have to secure their own counsel while the US Secretary of State instructs the Federal District Attorney of New York to extend the Spaniards, Ruiz and Montez, ‘every courtesy and measure of legal assistance’.

Thus even though, to America’s credit, the battle was to be fought in the courts, the Africans were ‘going against entrenched sentiment regarding the black race and a system which has legally condoned slavery for more than two hundred years.’

The legal arguments on both sides were fierce, intricate and beguiling. Were the Africans property of the Spanish merchants Ruiz and Montez? If this was the case they would have to be returned to the control of the Spanish authorities and for trial under the Spanish courts. Or were they free men stolen from the coast of Africa? If this was the case then the American government, according to its own laws, would have to ensure their safe return back to Africa.

Did they commit murder when they wrested control of the ship, or were their actions to be considered self-defence and a justifiable attempt to free themselves from illegal bondage? Judge Judson found in the favour of the Africans to the detriment of his aspirations to …

What is Physical Anthropology?

Anthropology is one of the most widely misunderstood scientific disciplines. This may be expected, since the word anthropology literally means "the study of man." That is quite an ambitious discipline! Because of this, anthropology often intersects and is informed by a wide variety of disciplines, such as: history, psychology, sociology, literature, religion, biology, political science, and philosophy.

Modern anthropology is divided into four major branches. These are: Cultural Anthropology, Archeology, Linguistics, and Physical Anthropology. This article will take a closer look at physical anthropology.

Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, is the study of the physical development of the human body and the human species (especially compared with other primates). Physical anthropologists also try to trace the evolution of humans and other primates. Physical anthropologists, above all things, love bones! Bones are the most common form of fossil evidence, and are a great way for anthropologists to trace the development of our species over time.

Physical anthropologists are usually pretty good at putting together a detailed profile of someone based only on a small bone fragment. By only examining a small part of a bone, they can often determine whether the person was male or female, what race they belonged to, their approximate height and weight, and their age. Because of this skill, physical anthropologists are often consulted when a police force is trying to resolve a crime, and many pursue practitioners in CSI work.

Because of its extremely technical nature about the human body, an undergraduate degree in physical anthropology is often an excellent preparatory course of study for admittance into medical school, although it is not the most common route.

Physical Anthropology can be grouped into several sub-branches. Some of these include:


This is the study of human DNA, how each person's DNA differs from another's, and how human DNA differs from related species.


This is the study of other primates. By studying apes and monkeys, anthropologists hope to gain more insight into human nature.

Behavioral Ecology:

This usually involves the study of modern hunter-gatherer groups. Cultural anthropologists are often interested in learning about the cultural practices of hunter-gatherers, but when physical anthropologists study them, they usually take more detailed measurements on things like: calories consumed per day, calories expended, time spent hunting / foraging, age at reproduction , Death and birth rates, etc. By collecting a large amount of data across many hunter-gatherer groups, anthropologists hope to put together a picture of the characteristics of a "natural" human.

There are many other sub-branches as well. Neuro-anthropologists study the human brain, and paleopathologists study diseases in ancient skeletons. Lately, physical anthropologists have been branching into the field of nutrition to share their ideas about the proper human diet based on their study of hunter-gatherers.

Hopefully this article taught you a little about the fascinating field of physical anthropology. Although the field is unknown to many people, physical anthropologists are diligently working to try to solve some of the most central problems of the human condition. …

Public School Law & Educational Laws and Policies, Employment Law, Contracts, Due Process, Dr. W.A. Kritsonis

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Public School Law & Educational Laws and Policies



          When we speak of employment, we find that the public school system is the largest employer in the state of Texas. The full scope of the employment relationship examines the constitutional concept of due process of law, the different employment arrangements that are available to public schools in Texas, the hiring and firing process, and the legal issues that arise in that context (Walsh, Kemerer, and Maniotis, 2005).

          For the purpose of this report, we will present ten cases as they relate to the different employment arrangements found in public education. The findings are intended to be informative and beneficial in terms of “at-will employees”, “Non-Chapter 21 Contracts”, “probationary contracts”, “term contracts”, “continuing contracts”, and “third-party independent contractor.” 

Case One

United States Court of Appeals,

Fifth Circuit.

Emilio MONTEZ, et al., Plaintiffs-Appellants,



No. 87 – 5501



Plaintiffs-Appellants: Emilio Montez, et. al



In 1979 Montez was hired to teach in the Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps program. Montez has never been certified as a teacher by the responsible authorities of the State of Texas. His initial employment was validated on October 15, 1979 when the Texas Education Agency issued him an Emergency Teaching Permit. That permit expired on August 31, 1980 and was never reissued. Montez continued to work until September 1985 when he was notified of the anticipated termination of his employment. After two hearings before the school district authorities, Montez was discharged at the end of the 1985-86 school year.


Emilio Montez appeals a summary judgment rejecting his claims under the Fifth and Fourteenth amendments and 42 U.S.C. series 1983. He alleges wrongful termination by the SAN ANTONIO ISD of his employment as an instructor in the JROTC program. The district court found no genuine issue of material fact and concluded that Montez had not been denied due process as relates to a claimed property interest.

The United States District Court for the Western District of Texas, at San Antonio, H. F. Garcia, J., granted summary judgment against instructor. Instructor appealed.


In order to establish due process deprivation of property interest under the Fourteenth Amendment, plaintiff must establish that he had “legitimate claim of entitlement” to that interest. Montez who was hired to teach in the JROTC program was employed under “continuing contracts” after his emergency teaching permit expired.

When he was subsequently discharged by the school district, it was determined that he was not “teacher”, for purposes of Texas “tenure law” granting “teachers” legitimate claim of entitlement to, and protection under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The instructor never held required permanent teaching certificate, and any contract purporting to give instructor more than that allowed by Texas law was beyond the power of the school district and could not bestow property interest on instructor.

Montez contends that, even if his contracts were …

Cost Effective Law Enforcement Aerial Patrol

While many of our law enforcement officers will make a major stand in regards to flying helicopters and the versatility of the helicopter, for many law enforcement agencies there are far more cost effective options available to perform many of the same mission roles as a helicopter.

Starting with the helicopter it does offer vertical takeoff and decent as well as hover capability. Hover capability is vital for performing officer insertion or extraction in confined areas where landing is not normally practical. Hover capability is also critical for life rescue work.

We now enter into an area that may turn a few heads. How often and how needed are these capabilities for your particular organization? Larger cities or metropolitan areas may in fact need all of the capabilities of a helicopter and may have the need even for a large helicopter for proper tactical deployment of personnel and or equipment. Now if an analytical approach to bang for the buck is applied to a majority of law enforcement missions, the actual number of times per year that these capabilities were utilized are most likely very low. For many cities not willing or by the private service of EMS helicopter operators, or the services of the Coast Guard, many EMS missions are not even covered by law enforcement agencies.

Large cities and metro departments can even benefit from a slightly mixed fleet of affordable aircraft and more expensive helicopters. With smaller cheaper aircraft to perform normal patrols and surveillance with the more mission – enhanced aircraft providing the special mission services it can offer.

Many law enforcement agencies not only in the United States but also across the world have made some very significant purchases in regards to new helicopters in the past few years. Aircraft such as the Eurocopter B2 and B3’s as well as Bell 206 L4 and 407 helicopters. Agencies have been replacing older aircraft with high component and or high airframe times with newer aircraft with more performance and the ability to safely carry the many mission support tools needed for airborne law enforcement.

Agencies have been able to find ways to procure new aircraft but very often the maintenance and repair area after the initial purchase is overlooked. Right along with this oversight is the increased operational costs and possible increase in insurance costs associated with the new purchase. A typical scenario seen across the industry is when an aircraft enters a major inspection is that the money needed to repair or replace the inspection items is often not available or was not budgeted for in the maintenance operating budget. This can be an administrative short-sight, an agency with a fixed maintenance budget, inaccurate information on DOC’s (Direct Operating Costs) as the area in which you operate may have more atmospheric contaminates to cause corrosion that were not taken into account at the time of purchase. Another possibility can be the hours that were actually flown exceeded the planned hours for the budget, this brings those …

RACE Today- Can We Really Talk About It?

Race, race – everything’s ‘bout race?  This should be lyrics to some new song.  Everywhere we turn some media personality in America is reporting on race, interviewing authorities about race, and labeling, categorizing, and detailing the trials and tribulations of race and race relations in American today.  Yet, outside the media, is anyone even talking about race and how race fits into our ideals, morals, and culture today? 

Do you think it is time to open the race discussion?  Let’s put it ALL out on the table.  Race, race relations, closet racism, racial bias, racial prejudice, conflicts between races, history of race, what we think of race in our society today, race in the media, racial divides, emotions associated with race, stepping away from racism, tolerance, etc., etc., etc.  Let’s make race dinner topic conversation.  Let’s talk about race with our kids, husbands and wives, siblings, parents and grandparents, friends and neighbors.  Isn’t it time to stop skirting racial conflict discussions?  Is now the time to stop labeling and judging who is and who isn’t “racist.” Let’s talk about race openly and honestly.  Really, everyone in the spotlight is talking about race and race relations – right?  Are you ready to openly discuss race and your racial attitudes?

Maybe this is a good place to start.  Ask yourself and your friends the following questions that were raised and discussed recently in the media; 2009.

Is racism simply a “white people’s” issue?

Jimmy Carter’s name is a-buzz in the media and internet right now after his recent comment, “there is belief among many white people, not just in the south but around the country, that African-Americans are not qualified to lead this great country.”  (as reported by CNN, September 2009) 

(He did say he wanted to be very careful before he spoke on this subject.  Well, I wonder if he feels he was careful or whether he wishes he had not even brought it up.)

Has the term “racism” become simply political fodder?

Michael  Williams, an African American candidate for United State Senate and one time federal prosecutor fighting against the Ku Klux Klan wrote in his blog dated September, 2009,  …”false cries of racism short circuit our debate, but it makes legitimate concern about pockets of racism impossible to hear among the majority of Americans where it truly exists. Racism does still exist in America today – on both sides of the political spectrum. Now it will be that much harder to expose because the real cry (racial injustice) will be impossible to distinguish from the false one, much like the boy who cried, “wolf.”

Is it true that race is not as big nor pervasive an issue as those in the “race baiting business” will have us believe?

“Race is only a fringe element in our society today.”  (Interview with Mark Williams, Tea Party Express Organizer, CNN Video Broadcast, September 2009)  He further added that race is big business for some people while it is not even an “on …